<p>Something on Earth is always burning! NASA's Earth Observatory tracks wildfires across the world with <a href="http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/GlobalMaps/view.php?d1=MOD14A1_M_FIRE" target="_blank">maps available for viewing</a> from 2000-present. Some wildfires can restore <a href="/earth/ecosystems.html&dev=1">ecosystems</a> to good health, but many can threaten human populations, posing a natural disaster threat.</p>
<p>Check out the materials about natural disasters in <a href="/earth/natural_hazards/when_nature_strikes.html&dev=1">NBC Learn Videos</a>, and their earth system science connections built up by the related secondary classroom activities.</p><p><small><em>NBC Learn</em></small></p>According to <a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-277">NASA scientists</a>, the Voyager 1 spacecraft entered interstellar space in August 2012, becoming the first spacecraft to leave the <a href="/our_solar_system/solar_system.html&dev=1">solar system</a>. The space probe is about 19 billion km from the <a href="/sun/sun.html&dev=1">Sun</a>.  <a href="/space_missions/voyager.html&dev=1">Voyager 1 and 2</a> were launched in 1977 on a <a href="/space_missions/voyager.html&dev=1">mission</a> that flew them both by <a href="/jupiter/jupiter.html&dev=1">Jupiter</a> and <a href="/saturn/saturn.html&dev=1">Saturn</a>, with Voyager 2 continuing to <a href="/uranus/uranus.html&dev=1">Uranus</a> and <a href="/neptune/neptune.html&dev=1">Neptune</a>. Voyager 2 is the longest continuously operated spacecraft. It is about 15 billion km away from the <a href="/sun/sun.html&dev=1">Sun</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA</em></small></p>Does Earth science matter?  The power outage experienced by residents in New York City on 10/30/2012 due to Hurricane Sandy demonstrates the interconnectedness of our society, and the power of the Earth system.  Every person should have an understanding of how the Earth system works so they can live better lives, protect those they love, and make wise choices.  Earth science education is critical!<p><small><em>Image courtesy of Hybirdd, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.</em></small></p>A new study has found that <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/airpollution_intro.html&dev=1">pollution</a> from <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/particulates.html&dev=1">fine particles</a> in the air - mainly the result of burning coal or <a href="/earth/interior/eruptions.html&dev=1">volcanic eruptions</a> - can shade <a href="/earth/Life/cnidarian.html&dev=1">corals</a> from sunlight and cool the surrounding water resulting in reduced growth rates.  Coral growth rates in the Caribbean were affected by volcanic aerosol emissions in the early 20th century and by aerosol emissions caused by humans in the later 20th century.  For more information, see the <a href="http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_278202_en.html">press release</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of Toby Hudson (Wikimedia Commons)</em></small></p>Scientists at the University of Michigan have found that <a href="/earth/polar/cryosphere_permafrost1.html&dev=1">permafrost</a> in the <a href="/earth/polar/polar_north.html&dev=1">Arctic</a> is extremely sensitive to sunlight.  Exposure to sunlight releases carbon gases trapped in the permafrost, including <a href="/earth/climate/earth_greenhouse.html&dev=1">climate-warming</a> <a href="/physical_science/chemistry/carbon_dioxide.html&dev=1">carbon dioxide</a>, to the <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html&dev=1">atmosphere</a> much faster than previously thought.<p><small><em>George Kling, The University of Michigan</em></small></p>New observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft provide  support for the hypothesis that Mercury harbors abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed (shown in red) polar craters. Areas where polar deposits of ice imaged by Earth-based radar are shown in yellow.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington/National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo Observatory</em></small></p>

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA

News about the Atmosphere of Earth

 08/18/10 New Computer Model Advances Climate Change Research

 06/14/10 Mysterious Clouds Produced When Aircraft Inadvertently Cause Rain or Snow

 04/30/10 Pollution Speeds up Snow Melt in Europe and Asia

 04/25/10 Soil Microbes Produce Less Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Than Expected With Global Warming

 04/23/10 Even in the Desert, Plants Feel the Heat of Global Warming

 04/22/10 Scientists Study "Glaciovolcanoes," Mountains of Fire and Ice

 04/15/10 “Missing” Heat May Affect Future Climate Change

 04/02/10 Dust-on-Snow: On Spring Winds, Something Wicked Thus Way Comes

 03/29/10 Climate Helped Bring Angkor to Its Knees

 03/25/10 Pollution from Asia Circles Globe at Stratospheric Heights

 03/17/10 Prescribed Burns May Help Reduce U.S. Carbon Footprint

 03/04/10 Scientists Find Signs of “Snowball Earth” Amidst Early Animal Evolution

 03/04/10 Methane Releases from Arctic Shelf May Be Much Larger and Faster Than Anticipated

 01/28/10 White Roofs May Successfully Cool Cities

 01/10/10 Global Ice Age Climate Patterns Influenced by Bering Strait

 12/10/09 Aerosols in the Atmosphere: From Mexico to Japan, Finland to Switzerland, the Same Everywhere

 11/13/09 Growth Spurt in Tree Rings Prompts Questions About Climate Change

 08/27/09 Connections among Solar Cycle, Stratosphere and Ocean Discovered

 08/16/09 Solar Cycle Linked to Global Climate

 06/23/09 Survey Finds That Americans Think Weather Forecasts Are Important

 05/27/09 Arctic Tundra May Contribute to Warmer World

 05/18/09 How Solid is Concrete's Carbon Footprint?

 05/17/09 Scientists Make First Direct Observations of Biological Particles in High-Altitude Clouds

 04/07/09 Scientists Learn About Lightning Inside a Volcanic Plume

 03/25/09 Tornado-like Rotation is Key to Understanding Volcanic Plumes

 01/08/09 NSF, NASA Successfully Flight-Test New Balloon Over Antarctica

 01/07/09 Flying from Pole to Pole to Measure Greenhouse Gases

 11/17/08 Small Satellite Takes on Large Thunderstorms

 11/09/08 Storms Shaped the Himalayan Mountains

 11/02/08 In Alaska's Forests, Dried Mushrooms to the Rescue?

 10/09/08 Health Standards Exceeded by Ozone Pollution in Wildfires

 10/08/08 Scientists Study Hurricanes of the Future

 10/03/08 Gas From the Past Gives Scientists New Insights into Climate and the Oceans

 09/24/08 Pine Bark Beetles Affecting More than Forests

 08/07/08 Scientists to Assess Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Control Efforts

 07/22/08 Scientists Test System to Forecast Flash Floods along Colorado's Front Range

 07/21/08 Outflow from World's Largest River – The Amazon – Powers Atlantic Ocean Carbon “Sink”

 06/12/08 If a Tree Falls in the Forest, and No One Is Around to Hear It, Does Climate Change?

 05/28/08 Scientists Search for the Cause of Ancient Global Warming

 05/21/08 Finding Answers in the Clouds: Using tiny planes to discover how air pollution can impact weather, climate, and global warming

 04/24/08 Injecting Sulfate Particles into Stratosphere Could Have Drastic Impact on Earth's Ozone Layer

 04/18/08 Earth Day 2008

 04/07/08 Money Doesn't Grow on Trees, But Gasoline Might

 12/14/07 Acid Rain Has Disproportionate Impact on Near-Shore Ocean Waters

 10/24/07 Solar Telescope Reaches 120,000 Feet on Jumbo-Jet-Sized Balloon

 02/01/07 IPCC 4th Assessment Report Summary Due

 09/22/05 Model Predicts Hurricane Rita's Path

 09/16/05 The 2005 Hurricane Season Is Churning the Atlantic

 02/16/05 The Kyoto Protocol Is in Effect! Around the World, 141 Countries Are Taking the First Steps to Decrease Greenhouse Gasses! Windows to the Universe

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A new study has found that <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/airpollution_intro.html&dev=1">pollution</a> from <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/particulates.html&dev=1">fine particles</a> in the air - mainly the result of burning coal or <a href="/earth/interior/eruptions.html&dev=1">volcanic eruptions</a> - can shade <a href="/earth/Life/cnidarian.html&dev=1">corals</a> from sunlight and cool the surrounding water resulting in reduced growth rates.  Coral growth rates in the Caribbean were affected by volcanic aerosol emissions in the early 20th century and by aerosol emissions caused by humans in the later 20th century.  For more information, see the <a href="http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_278202_en.html">press release</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of Toby Hudson (Wikimedia Commons)</em></small></p>New observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft provide  support for the hypothesis that Mercury harbors abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed (shown in red) polar craters. Areas where polar deposits of ice imaged by Earth-based radar are shown in yellow.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington/National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo Observatory</em></small></p>Does Earth science matter?  The power outage experienced by residents in New York City on 10/30/2012 due to Hurricane Sandy demonstrates the interconnectedness of our society, and the power of the Earth system.  Every person should have an understanding of how the Earth system works so they can live better lives, protect those they love, and make wise choices.  Earth science education is critical!<p><small><em>Image courtesy of Hybirdd, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.</em></small></p>Scientists at the University of Michigan have found that <a href="/earth/polar/cryosphere_permafrost1.html&dev=1">permafrost</a> in the <a href="/earth/polar/polar_north.html&dev=1">Arctic</a> is extremely sensitive to sunlight.  Exposure to sunlight releases carbon gases trapped in the permafrost, including <a href="/earth/climate/earth_greenhouse.html&dev=1">climate-warming</a> <a href="/physical_science/chemistry/carbon_dioxide.html&dev=1">carbon dioxide</a>, to the <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html&dev=1">atmosphere</a> much faster than previously thought.<p><small><em>George Kling, The University of Michigan</em></small></p><p>Something on Earth is always burning! NASA's Earth Observatory tracks wildfires across the world with <a href="http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/GlobalMaps/view.php?d1=MOD14A1_M_FIRE" target="_blank">maps available for viewing</a> from 2000-present. Some wildfires can restore <a href="/earth/ecosystems.html&dev=1">ecosystems</a> to good health, but many can threaten human populations, posing a natural disaster threat.</p>
<p>Check out the materials about natural disasters in <a href="/earth/natural_hazards/when_nature_strikes.html&dev=1">NBC Learn Videos</a>, and their earth system science connections built up by the related secondary classroom activities.</p><p><small><em>NBC Learn</em></small></p>According to <a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-277">NASA scientists</a>, the Voyager 1 spacecraft entered interstellar space in August 2012, becoming the first spacecraft to leave the <a href="/our_solar_system/solar_system.html&dev=1">solar system</a>. The space probe is about 19 billion km from the <a href="/sun/sun.html&dev=1">Sun</a>.  <a href="/space_missions/voyager.html&dev=1">Voyager 1 and 2</a> were launched in 1977 on a <a href="/space_missions/voyager.html&dev=1">mission</a> that flew them both by <a href="/jupiter/jupiter.html&dev=1">Jupiter</a> and <a href="/saturn/saturn.html&dev=1">Saturn</a>, with Voyager 2 continuing to <a href="/uranus/uranus.html&dev=1">Uranus</a> and <a href="/neptune/neptune.html&dev=1">Neptune</a>. Voyager 2 is the longest continuously operated spacecraft. It is about 15 billion km away from the <a href="/sun/sun.html&dev=1">Sun</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA</em></small></p>

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA