As can be seen in this sample Landsat image of the area around McMurdo Station, the new mosaic reveals in unprecedented detail the ice shelves, mountains, glaciers that make Antarctica a fascinating and important place to study.
Click on image for full size
Courtesy of USGS

Newly Unveiled Satellite Map of Antarctica Is a Unique Tool for Scientists, Educators and the Public
News story originally written on November 27, 2007

Three federal agencies and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) today unveiled a uniquely detailed and scientifically accurate satellite mosaic map of Antarctica that is expected to become a standard geographic reference and will give both scientists and the general public an unmatched tool for studying the southernmost continent.

Representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and BAS worked cooperatively to produce the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), a map that combines more than 1,100 hand-selected Landsat satellite scenes digitally compiled to create a single, seamless, cloud-free image.

The new map was introduced to the media and public during an event at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

At a moment in history when there is unprecedented concern about the state of the polar ice caps in the face of documented regional Arctic and Antarctic warming trends, the LIMA mosaic provides a critical "snapshot in time" of of Antarctica's ice sheets, which contain over 60 percent the world's fresh water, noted Scott Borg, director of NSF's division of Antarctic sciences.

"But LIMA is also a fundamental tool for scientists. It will be used in every discipline from biology to geology to glaciology, both to answer scientific questions and plan fieldwork in the vast unexplored tracts of Antarctica. For educators, students, and the general public, LIMA will bring to life the Antarctic continent like nothing before it," Borg said. "Imagine a middle-school Earth-science student comparing landforms in the glaciated valleys of Antarctic to similar features in the Rocky Mountains or even comparing a rock glacier in Antarctica with some of the features scientists are studying in images from Mars."

"This mosaic draws on 35 years of experience by the USGS's Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) center, whose goals include the preservation of and access to the Nation's remotely sensed land data assets through the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive," said Barbara Ryan, USGS associate director for geography. LIMA was produced using EROS images from the Landsat 7 satellite launched in 1999.

The Landsat Program began in 1972, with the launch of the first Landsat satellite. "Sensors aboard Landsat satellites have captured millions of digital images of the Earth's land masses and coastal regions used by researchers worldwide to study global change, natural disasters, and other aspects of of the Earth's terrestrial environment," Ryan said.

Robert Bindschadler, chief scientist of the Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory at Goddard, noted that the new mosaic is the most detailed map of the continent in existence and offers the most geographically accurate, true-color views of the continent possible. "This innovation, compared to what we had available most recently, is like watching the most spectacular high-definition TV in living color versus watching the picture on a small black-and-white television,"he said.

An NSF grant provided the nearly $1 million U.S. contribution to the LIMA project. Tom Wagner, earth sciences program director for the NSF-managed U.S. Antarctic Program, noted that this project is the first major scientific product of the International Polar year (IPY).

"LIMA represents the true spirit of the IPY in two ways," Wagner said. "Firstly, it's an international collaboration between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, and secondly, the map and raw data are freely available to the world community of scientists, educators, and the general public."

IPY is a coordinated international field campaign that began in March 2007. During IPY, hundreds of scientists from more than 60 nations will deploy to the Arctic and Antarctic to study a range of disciplines. IPY marks the beginning of a sustained effort to understand large-scale environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. NSF is the lead U.S. agency for IPY.

Wagner added that apart from the international collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey, the project is a major interagency collaborative, with both USGS and NASA playing unique and key roles in bringing the map into existence, and that the LIMA project grew out of a "grassroots" scientific consensus across the government that the project had merit.

Two researchers, Jerry Mullins, at USGS, and Bindschadler, at NASA, he added, were instrumental in LIMA's development.

"Recognizing that change was afoot in the mapping community, Jerry Mullins, with NSF's support, organized a meeting of Antarctic researchers to determine their needs for information about Antarctica. And it quickly became apparent that LandSat imagery had great potential but needed to be shaped into a new map for its potential to be realized," Wagner said.

Wagner said that "Bob Bindschadler had the foresight many years ago to convince NASA that the Landsat satellite should collect data over Antarctica. His group also picked all of the images that make up the mosaic. It wasn't easy work; many thousands of scenes were considered and rejected. New techniques to interpret the data were also developed by Bob's group just for this project."

Text above is courtesy of the National Science Foundation

Last modified May 1, 2008 by Becca Hatheway.

You might also be interested in:

Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

The Antarctic Region

What Will You Find There? South of the Antarctic Circle (at 66.5S latitude) you will find the continent of Antarctica surrounded by the Southern Ocean, the geographic South Pole and the magnetic South...more

The Cryosphere

The cryosphere includes the parts of the Earth system where water is in its frozen (solid) form. This includes snow, sea ice, icebergs, ice shelves, glaciers, ice sheets, and permafrost soils. Approximately...more

Glaciers and Ice Sheets

For a glacier to develop, the amount of snow that falls must be more than the amount of snow that melts each year. This means that glaciers are only found in places where a large amount of snow falls each...more

Triggers of Volcanic Eruptions in Oregon's Mount Hood Investigated

A new study has found that a mixing of two different types of magma is the key to the historic eruptions of Mount Hood, Oregon's tallest mountain, and that eruptions often happen in a relatively short...more

Oldest Earth Mantle Reservoir Discovered

Researchers have found a primitive Earth mantle reservoir on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Geologist Matthew Jackson and his colleagues from a multi-institution collaboration report the finding--the...more

Its Not Your Fault A Typical Fault, Geologically Speaking, That Is

Some geologic faults that appear strong and stable, slip and slide like weak faults. Now an international team of researchers has laboratory evidence showing why some faults that 'should not' slip are...more

Extended Period of Lower Solar Activity Linked to Changes in Sun's Conveyor Belt

A new analysis of the unusually long solar cycle that ended in 2008 suggests that one reason for the long cycle could be a stretching of the sun's conveyor belt, a current of plasma that circulates between...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA