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Our Glaciers: Then and Now activity kit helps you see the changes taking place in glaciers around the world. See all our activity kits and classroom activities.

Sciences

Although in most places science is taught as different disciplines, actually, it's all connected! In order to do research in the Earth and space sciences - also sometimes called the "geosciences", you need to have a strong background in all the sciences, as well as in mathematics, too. In this section, we have brought together information related to the Earth and space sciences from across our website on the different scientific disciplines. Explore these links to find out more about geology, physics, chemistry, and biology.
Daniel Wolf Savin, a senior research scientist at Columbia University's
Astrophysics Laboratory, has published a paper on the research he and his
colleagues have done on how stars began. They learned that hydrogen and
helium produced all other
<a href="/physical_science/element.html">elements</a> in
the <a href="/the_universe/the_universe.html">universe</a>.
Find out more about their research
<a href="/headline_universe/olpa/stars_01july10.html">here</a>.<p><small><em> Image Courtesy of Daniel Wolf Savin, Columbia University</em></small></p>A view of the Earth as seen by the <a href="/space_missions/apollo17.html">Apollo
17</a> crew
while traveling to the
<a href="/earth/moons_and_rings.html">Moon</a> on
December 7, 1972.  Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula are
visible, and you can barely make out the
<a href="/earth/polar/antarctica.html">Antarctic</a>,
shrouded in the heavy
<a href="/earth/Atmosphere/cloud.html">cloud</a> cover
in the southern hemisphere.
Arching cloud patterns show the presence of <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/front.html">weather
fronts</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA/Apollo 17.</em></small></p>Everything you see around you is made of tiny particles called <a href="/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/atom.html">atoms</a>. There are many different types of atoms, each with a special combination of <a href="/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/proton.html">protons</a>, <a href="/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/neutron.html">neutrons</a> and <a href="/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/electron.html">electrons</a>. These different types of atoms are called <a href="/physical_science/element.html">elements</a>.<p><small><em>              L.Gardiner/Windows to the Universe</em></small></p>The Pompeii worm, the most heat-tolerant animal on Earth, lives in the deep ocean at <a href="/earth/Water/life_deep.html">hydrothermal vents</a>. The worm's back is covered in bacteria adapted for living in <a href="/earth/extreme_environments.html">extreme environments</a>. The bacteria also grows on the surfaces of the chimneys where hot liquids spew from below the sea floor.<p><small><em>Courtesy of the University of Delaware</em></small></p>Scientists at the University of Michigan have found that <a href="/earth/polar/cryosphere_permafrost1.html">permafrost</a> in the <a href="/earth/polar/polar_north.html">Arctic</a> is extremely sensitive to sunlight.  Exposure to sunlight releases carbon gases trapped in the permafrost, including <a href="/earth/climate/earth_greenhouse.html">climate-warming</a> <a href="/physical_science/chemistry/carbon_dioxide.html">carbon dioxide</a>, to the <a href="/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html">atmosphere</a> much faster than previously thought.<p><small><em>George Kling, The University of Michigan</em></small></p>A <a href="http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/2/024035/article">study</a> of over 40,000 written entries in Irish Annals and ice core measurements shows a strong correlation between <a href="http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/interior/eruptions.html">volcanic eruptions</a> and extreme cold weather in Ireland over a 1200 year period, from 431 to 1649.  During this time up to 48 volcanic eruptions were identified in Greenland ice core records through deposition of volcanic sulfate in annual layers of ice. Find out more about <a href="http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/geosphere_volcanoes_influence_on_climate.html">volcanoes and climate</a>.<p><small><em>Image Courtesy of Marco Fulle</em></small></p>

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Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF