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Become a nitrogen atom in the nitrogen cycle in our Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit/Game. See all our games, activity kits and classroom activities.
Portrait of Giovanni Schiaparelli
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Giovanni Schiaparelli

Gioavanni Schiaparelli was an Italian astronomer who lived between 1835-1910. He noticed that there were straight lines on the surface of planet Mars which formed a pattern, and called them canals. This made many people think that something lived on Mars which had built these structures. However, the canals on Mars are just natural geologic features, like canyons and mountains on the Earth.


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Our online store includes issues of NESTA's quarterly journal, The Earth Scientist, full of classroom activities on different topics in Earth and space science, ranging from seismology, rocks and minerals, oceanography, and Earth system science to astronomy!

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Science, Evolution, and Creationism

How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable....more

Exploratour: Life on Mars?

When we ask "Where might we find life outside of the Earth", the first place many scientists turn to is Mars. Mars may have been like the Earth in its past. No signs of life on Mars have been found, but...more

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was an English Naturalist who lived between 1809-1882. One of the most famous and influential scientists of all time, his ideas changed the ways all other scientists thought. Darwin started...more

Christian Doppler

Christian Doppler was an Austrian mathematician who lived between 1803-1853. He is known for a principle he proposed in 1842. This is now known as the Doppler Effect. He thought that the pitch of a sound...more

Ben Franklin

Ben Franklin was an American scientist and statesman who lived between 1706-1790. He studied electricity and learned of its dangers and possible uses. Franklin developed many inventions that made people's...more

Edmond Halley

Edmond Halley was an English astronomer who lived between 1656-1742. He reasoned that the same comet which he saw in 1682 had appeared before and predicted that it would appear again, about every 76 years....more

William Herschel

William Herschel was born in Germany. He moved to England and worked there most of his life. He lived between 1738-1822. He built powerful telescopes which let him observe the heavens with greater detail....more

Christian Huygens

Christian Huygens was a Dutch physicist and astronomer who lived between 1629-1695. He made improvements in telescopes allowing people to view objects in space with greater detail. Huygens also invented...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF