This is what an artist thinks Haumea looks like. This drawing shows the dwarf planet and its two moons Hi'iaka and Namaka. Notice how Haumea's fast spin has stretched it into an oval (not spherical) shape.
Click on image for full size
Images courtesy of NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI).
Haumea (dwarf planet)
Haumea is a dwarf planet in our Solar System. Haumea is officially the fifth dwarf planet. The four that came before it are Pluto, Eris, Ceres, and Makemake. Haumea officially became a dwarf planet in September 2008.
Haumea is a large Kuiper Belt Object (KBO). It is an icy world that orbits far from the Sun on the edge of our Solar System. Because it is so far away, Haumea takes 285 years to orbit the Sun once! Haumea is usually a bit further from the Sun than Pluto.
Haumea is smaller than both Pluto and Eris. Haumea has an odd shape. It is not a sphere. It is spinning very quickly. That fast spin has stretched it into the shape of an ellipsoid (a 3D ellipse). Haumea is 1,960 km (1,218 miles) across one direction. It is only about half that far across - 996 km (619 miles) - along its shortest axis!
The "days" are really short on Haumea. This weird object spins around in less than four hours! Haumea has
known moons. Both were discovered in 2005. Their names are Hi'iaka and Namaka.
Astronomers think Haumea crashed into another large object a long time ago. That might explain Haumea's strange shape and why it spins so fast. Haumea's moons may be leftover stuff from the collision.
In the mythology of Hawaii, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth. Her children include Hi'iaka and Namaka, as well as the Hawaiian volcano and fire goddess Pele.
There are two groups that might get credit for discovering Haumea. One group is led by Mike Brown of the California Institute of Technology. The other group is led by José Luis Ortiz Moreno at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain. Haumea was discovered sometime between March 2003 and July 2005.
Haumea was called 2003 EL61 before it got its official, permanent name. It had been nicknamed "Santa" by Brown's group because they discovered it near Christmas in 2004.
Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!
The Summer 2010 issue of The Earth Scientist
, available in our online store
, includes articles on rivers and snow, classroom planetariums, satellites and oceanography, hands-on astronomy, and global warming.
You might also be interested in:
In 2006 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) approved a new classification scheme for planets and smaller objects in our Solar System. Their scheme includes three classes of objects: "small solar...more
Pluto is a frigid ball of ice and rock that orbits far from the Sun on the frozen fringes of our Solar System. Considered a planet, though a rather odd one, from its discovery in 1930 until 2006, it was...more
Eris is a dwarf planet in our Solar System. Eris is a lot like Pluto, which is also a dwarf planet. Eris and Pluto are both very far from the Sun. They are both very, very cold. Eris was discovered in...more
Makemake is a dwarf planet in our Solar System. Makemake was discovered in March 2005 by a team of astronomers led by Mike Brown. Makemake officially became a dwarf planet in July 2008. There were three...more
Do you think Earth moves around the Sun in a circle? That is almost true, but not quite. The shape of Earth's orbit isn't quite a perfect circle. It is more like a "stretched out" circle or an...more
There are lots of small worlds at the edge of our Solar System. They are made of ice and rock. They are further away from the Sun than most planets. They are further away than the 8th planet, Neptune....more
Do you know what a planet is? Guess what... astronomers are not quite sure what a planet is! Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the planets closest to the Sun. They are definitely all planets. They are...more