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The Spring 2011 issue of The Earth Scientist is focused on modernizing seismology education. Thanks to IRIS, you can download this issue for free as a pdf. Print copies are available in our online store.
This is an image of Venus.
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NASA

The Cooling of Venus

A planet goes through cycles of history depending upon how it cools in time. The following may be the history of Venus.

  • Venus formed about 4 Billion Years ago.
  • at the conclusion of forming it continued to be bombarded with leftover material. (called the period of Late Heavy Bombardment). Many planets still bear the remains of this activity with the exhibition of heavy cratering on their surfaces, unless some activity happens to change the appearance.
  • Venus probably came out of this state warm, and differentiated into layers. The Goldilocks phenomenon also played a role in the formation of the atmosphere.
  • With further cooling, the lithosphere of Venus began to thicken, restricting the movement of plates across the surface and the recycling of the atmosphere.
  • Despite the thick lithosphere, surface activity, including volcanism, may continue to this day as Venus continues to cool.

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Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA