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Arches National Park Geology Tour provides an extensive, visually rich description of the geology of Arches, by Deborah Ragland, Ph.D. See our DVD collection.
This is a drawing of the Earth's crust.
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Motions of the Crust of Venus

A thick crust would prevent motion of the surface of Venus. It is not yet clear whether the crust of Venus is thick or thin. The shape of the volcanoes of Venus suggests that over its history, Venus has built a thick crust, like that of Mars.

On the other hand, features found on the surface, listed below, are all evidence that a planet's surface may be in motion. For Venus, these features are present but few, suggesting that if the crust does move, it is not with the same speed, or in the same way, as that of the Earth.


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Science, Evolution, and Creationism

How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable....more

The Crust of Venus

Unlike the Earth's crust, the crust of Venus is very rigid. On Earth, the lithosphere can be pushed aside in response to the warmth of the Earth. The crust then subducts, melts, and becomes part of the...more

Volcanic Formations of Venus

One reason scientists think that Venus has a thick crust comes from the shape of the volcanoes of Venus. (This is a different reason than in the case of Mars). In the long time in which the volcanoes exist,...more

Venus Mountains

The four main mountain ranges of Venus are named Maxwell Montes, Frejya Montes, Akna Montes, and Danu Montes. These are found on Ishtar Terra. Mountain ranges are formed by the folding and buckling of...more

Volcanism of Venus

The Magellan mission to Venus confirmed that the surface of Venus is definitely volcanic. As shown in this picture, lava flows extend to hundreds of miles across the plains in the foreground. The surface...more

Venus Tessera

Tessera is a unique feature of Venus, and is also known as "complex ridged terrain". These features are found on some of the Venus Plateau Highlands. Tessera is created is by a shortening of the crust....more

Venus Faulting

This picture shows an example of folding and faulting on Venus. The different patterns of faulting provide evidence of the stress and strain, or pushing and shoving taking place by different parts of the...more

Venus Coronae

The feature of Venus' geography called a "Corona" is a deep, curving, trench surrounding an elevated plain. Coronae is the plural term for corona. This is an image of Artemis Corona which is found on Aphrodite...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF