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Young Voices for the Planet DVD in our online store includes 8 films where students speak out and take action on climate change.
Super-Kamiokande is a 50,000 ton water Cerenkov detector located at a depth of 2700 meters water equivalent in the Kamioka Mozumi mine in Japan.
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Image courtesy of the University of Maryland

The Super Kamiokande

Super-Kamiokande is a neutrino detector located in the Kamioka Mozumi mine in Japan. Water fills this huge tank. In fact, it is the world's largest underground neutrino detector experiment (built under a joint Japan-US collaboration).

Super-Kamiokande is a big cylindrical tank. Its dimensions are about 40 m in diameter and 40 m in height. The walls are covered with about 13,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMT's). These are very sensitive devices that ultimately help scientists track neutrinos.


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Cool It! is the new card game from the Union of Concerned Scientists that teaches kids about the choices we have when it comes to climate change—and how policy and technology decisions made today will matter. Cool It! is available in our online store.

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Cool It! Game

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

The Big Bang

All of the matter and energy in the Universe was initially confined in a very small region. An explosion occurred which caused the Universe to begin expanding. This expansion continues today. ...more

Neutrinos

The neutrino is an extremely light particle. It has no electric charge. The neutrino interacts through the weak force. For this reason and because it is electrically neutral, neutrino interactions with...more

The Solar Neutrino Problem

Theories about fusion inside the solar core predict the number of neutrinos that should reach Earth. Experiments on Earth have been set up to detect solar neutrinos in order to test these models. Current...more

Creating Elements up to Iron

When the temperature in the core of a star reaches 100 million degrees Kelvin fusion of Helium into Carbon occurs. Oxygen is also formed from fusion of Carbon and Helium together when the temperature is...more

Binding Energy

A plot of the binding energy per nucleon vs. atomic mass shows a peak atomic number 56 (Iron). Elements with atomic mass less then 56 release energy if formed as a result of a fusion reaction. Above this...more

Fusion Experiments

There are several experiments where nuclear fusion reactions have been achieved in a controlled manner (that means no bombs are involved!!). The two main approaches that are being explored are magnetic...more

The Hydrogen Bomb

In the Hydrogen bomb the explosion of a nuclear fission charge (atomic bomb) produces the temperature and density so fusion can occur. This fusion results in a sudden release of a large amount of energy...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF