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A History of Manned Space Missions

Mission
(Country)
Craft Launch Date Crew Mission Highlights
Vostok-1
(USSR)
Kedr (Cedar) April 12, 1961 Gagarin Cosmonaut Yuri Garagin became the first human in space.
Mercury-3
(USA)
Freedom 7 May 5, 1961 Shepard Alan Shepard became the first American in space during a fifteen minute sub-orbital flight
Mercury-4
(USA)
Liberty Bell-7 July 21, 1961 Grissom The second US sub-orbital flight, reaching an altitude of 126 miles
Vostok-2
(USSR)
Orel (Eagle) August 6, 1961 Titov Titov was the first to spend an entire day in space.
Mercury-6
(USA)
Friendship 7 February 20,1962 Glenn The first US manned orbital flight at an orbit 100-162 miles from the Earth.
Mercury-7
(USA)
Aurora 7 May 24, 1962 Carpenter The second US manned orbital flight which orbited the Earth three times.
Vostok-3
(USSR)
Sokol (Falcon) August 11, 1962 Nikolayev First four-day flight and first "group" flight with Vostok-4.
Vostok-4
(USSR)
Berkut (Golden Eagle) August 12, 1962 Popovich The other half of the first "group" flight. Vostok-4 came within five miles of Vostok-3.
Mercury-8
(USA)
Sigma 7 October 3, 1962 Schirra Walter Schirra orbited the Earth six times during this 9 hour mission.
Mercury 9
(USA)
Faith 7 May 15, 1963 Cooper Cooper pilots the longest and last Mercury mission, totalling 34 hours in space.
Vostok 5
(USSR)
Yastreb (Hawk) June 14, 1963 Bykovsky Bykovsky set an endurance record of 5 days in space.
Vostok 6
(USSR)
Chaika (Seagull) June 16,1963 Tereshkova This mission marked the first woman in space.
Voskhod 1
(USSR)
Rubin (Ruby) October 12, 1964 Komarov
Feoktistov
Yegorov
The first space crew, with one pilot and two passengers. The capsule was so crowded that the crew did not wear spacesuits. All suffered from space sickness.
Voskhod 2
(USSR)
Almaz (Diamond) March 18, 1965 Belyavyev
Leonov
Leonov became the first person to walk in space. They landed far from their designated spot and ended up in the Ural mountains. It took two days for the rescue team to find them.
Gemini-Titan 3
(USA)
Molly Brown March 23, 1965 Grissom
Young
Starting the Gemini program, this spacecraft was the first to carry a computer for guidance and was powered by rocket. The manueverability of this craft led to the eventual rendezvous and docking of vehicles in space.
Gemini-Titan 4
(USA)
Gemini 4 June 3, 1965 McDivitt
White
This mission set a four-day endurance record. White made the first American spacewalk for 21 minutes.
Gemini-Titan 5
(USA)
Gemini 5 August 21, 1965 Cooper
Conrad
Cooper and Conrad set the world endurance record by spending 8 days in orbit. This proved that humans could survive in space long enough to travel to the moon and back.
Gemini-Titan 7
(USA)
Gemini 7 December 4, 1965 Borman
Lovell
This mission set yet another endurance record of 13 days and made the first American rendezvous between two manned spacecraft with Gemini 6
Gemini-Titan 6-A
(USA)
Gemini 6 December 15,1965 Schirra
Stafford
Gemini 6 rendezvoused with Gemini 7 coming within one foot of the other.
Gemini-Titan 8
(USA)
Gemini 8 March 16,1966 Armstrong
Scott
Armstrong and Scott perform the first docking in space with another space vehicle - an Agena target rocket. The mission was prematurely terminated after only 10 hours and 41 minutes due to problems with a stuck thruster.
Gemini-Titan 9-A
(USA)
Gemini 9 June 3,1966 Stafford
Cernan
Gemini 9 rendezvoused with the Augmented Target Docking Adaptor, but were unable to dock with the vehicle.
Gemini-Titan 10
(USA)
Gemini 10 July 18,1966 Young
Collins
Gemini 10 reached a record altitude of 468 miles (752km). The craft rendevoused and docked two different Agena targets and Collins performed two spacewalks.
Gemini-Titan 11
(USA)
Gemini 11 September 12, 1966 Conrad
Gordon
Gemini made the first American autopilot reentry and landing. A new record altitude was made of 850 miles (1360km). Gemini made a rendezvous and docking with a target Agena and Gordon made two spacewalks.
Gemini-Titan 12
(USA)
Gemini 12 November 11, 1966 Lovell
Aldrin
In this last Gemini mission, Aldrin made three spacewalks totaling 5.5 hours. He performed several simple tasks with tools outside the spacecraft.
Apollo-Saturn 204
(USA)
Apollo 1 January 27, 1967 Grissom
White
Chaffee
While training for a fourteen-day mission scheduled for launch in February, astronauts Grissom, White, and Chaffee were killed in a fire aboard the Apollo 1.
Soyuz 1
(USSR)
Rubin (Ruby) April 23, 1967 Komarov Cosmonaut Komarov launches the first Soyuz mission. The spacecraft experienced problems in maintaining its orientation. When Komarov attempted a reentry, Soyuz 1 crashed and killed him.
Apollo-Saturn 7
(USA)
Apollo 7 October 11, 1968 Schirra
Eisele
Cunningham
The Apollo spacecraft makes its first flight as the astronauts perform several tests during its 11 days in orbit. The first live television pictures from space occurs on this mission.
Soyuz 3
(USSR)
Argon October 26,1968 Beregovoy First manned flight of the redesigned Soyuz craft. The mission completed a rendezvous with the unmanned Soyuz 2.
Apollo-Saturn 8
(USA)
Apollo 8 December 21, 1968 ,Borman
Lovell
Anders
This Saturn 5 rocket sent the astronauts to the far side of the moon, a first in manned flight. They made ten orbits around the moon on this most powerful rocket ever used in manned flight.
Soyuz 4
(USSR)
Amur January 14,1969 Shatalov Soyuz 4 was joined by Soyuz 5 on January 15. Shatalov piloted the rendevous and docking on January 16 with Soyuz 5 and then Yeliseyev and Khrunov took a spacewalk over to Soyuz 4. The three returned to Earth together.
Soyuz 5
(USSR)
Baikal January 15, 1969 Volynov
Yeliseyev
Khrunov
Soyuz 5 was docked by Soyuz 4. Yeliseyev and Khrunov transferred over to vSoyuz 4 and Volynov returned to earth alone.
Apollo-Saturn 9
(USA)
Apollo 9
cm: Gumdrop
lm: Spider
March 3, 1969 McDivitt
Scott
Schweickart
McDivitt and Schweickart made the first manned test of the lunar module (lm), while Scott remained aboard the command module (cm).
Apollo-Saturn 10
(USA)
Apollo 10
cm: Charlie Brown
lm: Snoopy
May 18, 1969 Stafford
Young
Cernan
This mission was a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing. The lunar module came within 10 miles of the surface of the moon and took photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site.
Apollo-Saturn 11
(USA)
Apollo 11
cm: Columbia
lm: Eagle
July 16, 1969 Armstrong
Collins
Aldrin
Apollo 11 successfully completed the first manned mission to the lunar surface. At 10:56am on July 20, Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon, joined 18 minutes by Aldrin. Armstrong and Aldrin remained on the surface for 20 hours and took a two-hour moonwalk.
Soyuz 6
(USSR)
Antei (Anteus) October 11, 1969 Shonin
Kubasov
Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission. Kubasov performed the first space welding experiment.
Soyuz 7
(USSR)
Buran (Snowstorm) October 12, 1969 Filipchenko
Volkov
Gorbatko
Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission.
Soyuz 8
(USSR)
Granit (Granite) October 13, 1969 Shatalov
Yeliseyev
Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission.
Apollo-Saturn 12
(USA)
Apollo 12
cm: Yankee Clipper
lm: Intrepid
November 14, 1969 Conrad
Gordon
Bean
Apollo 12 made the second landing on the moon. Conrad and Bean collected 31 kilograms of lunar rock and soil, and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3 spacecraft.
Apollo-Saturn 13
(USA)
Apollo 13
cm: Odyssey
lm: Aquarius
April 11, 1970 Lovell
Swigert
Haise
The third manned lunar landing was aborted due to an explosion aboard the command module on April 13. Lovell, Swigert, and Haise used the lunar module as a lifeboat. Through the heroic work of the astronauts and ground engineers, the spacecraft and crew returned safely to Earth.
Soyuz 9
(USSR)
Sokol (Falcon) June 1, 1970 Nikolayev
Sevastyanov
This eighteen-day flight set a new endurance record. However, the two astronauts had to be carried from the spacecraft after landing.
Apollo-Saturn 14
(USA)
Apollo 14
cm: Kitty Hawk
lm: Antares
January 31, 1971 Shepard
Roosa
Mitchell
Apollo 14 was the third successful lunar landing mission. This mission was the first to use a tool cart on the moon, for the collection of more rock and soil samples.
Soyuz 10
(USSR)
Granit (Granite) April 23, 1971 Shatalov
Yeliseyev
Rukavishnikov
Soyuz 10 was launched four days after Salyut, the first Soviet space station. The cosmonauts docked the station, but were unable to enter.
Soyuz 11
(USSR)
Yantar (Amber) June 6, 1971 Dobrovolsky
Volkov
Patsayev
These cosmonauts became the first crew of the Salyut 1 space station. They were in orbit for 24 days, completing experiments, observations, and other tasks. The mission ended in tragedy when all three cosmonauts were killed by a sudden cabin leak on Yantar prior to their return to Earth.
Apollo-Saturn 15
(USA)
Apollo 15
cm: Endeavour
lm: Falcon
July 26, 1971 Scott
Worden
Irwin
Scott and Irwin became the first astronauts to use the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the fourth successful lunar landing.
Apollo-Saturn 16
(USA)
Apollo 16
cm: Casper
lm: Orion
April 16, 1972 Young
Mattingly
Duke
Young and Duke visited the previously unexplored lunar highlands, using the Lunar Rover a second time.
Apollo-Saturn 17
(USA)
Apollo 17
cm: Challenger
lm: America
December 7, 1972 Cernan
Evans
Schmitt
Apollo 17 was the last lunar landing mission. Cernan and Schmitt completed three moon walks, obtained rock and soil samples, and used a lunar rover to cover more than 18 miles (30km) of territory.
Skylab SL-2
(USA)
Skylab May 25, 1973 Conrad
Kerwin
Weitz
The first American laboratory in space, Skylab, was launched on the last Saturn 5 rocket, to be joined on May 25 by its crew: Conrad, Weitz (the first American physician-astronaut), and Kerwin. The crew made repairs to the lab which was damaged during launch. They spent 28 days in space performing experiments and observations.
Skylab SL-3
(USA)
Skylab July 23, 1973 Bean
Garriott
Lousma
These astronauts became the second crew of Skylab. After a period of severe motion sickness, the crew settled down to a regular schedule of experiments and observations, spending 60 days in orbit.
Soyuz 12(USSR) Urals September 27, 1973 Lazarev
Makarov
Using a redesigned spacecraft, Soyuz 12 went through a systems check on a two-day mission. The cosmonauts of this mission became the first to wear spacesuits in flight since 1965.
Skylab SL-4
(USA)
Skylab November 15, 1973 Carr
Gibson
Pogue
These astronauts became the final crew of Skylab, completing an 84-day mission of experiments and observations. They obtained observations of Comet Kohoutek, as well as an impressive solar flare. They returned safely on February 8, 1974. Skylab itself re-entered the Earth's atmosphere in 1979 and broke into numerous pieces which scattered over the Pacific Ocean and Australia.
Soyuz 13
(USSR)
Kavkaz (Caucasus) December 18,1973 Klimuk
Lebedev
Soyuz 13 carried the Orion astrophysical observatory, which was never deployed to the Salyut space station. Klimuk and Lebedev observed Comet Kahoutek as did the Skylab astronauts. It was the first time that Soviet and American space travelers were in orbit simultaneously.
Soyuz 14
(USSR)
Berkut (Golden Eagle) July 3, 1974 Popovich
Artyukhin
These two astronauts conducted the USSR's first successful space station mission, spending 14 days aboard Salyut 3.
Soyuz 15
(USSR)
Dunai (Danube) August 26, 1974 Sarafanov
Demin
Soyuz 15 had to cut its trip to Salyut 3 for a two-week mission short when their guidance system failed. They returned to Earth safely.
Soyuz 16
(USSR)
Buran (Snowstorm) December 2, 1974 Filipchenko
Rukavishnikov
This mission was a dress rehearsal for the Soviet-American flight scheduled for July 1975. NASA ground stations tracked Soyuz 16 after launch.
Soyuz 17
(USSR)
Zenit (Zenith) January 11, 1975 Gubarev
Grechko
Gubarev and Grechko conducted experiments aboard Salyut 4 for 29 days.
Soyuz 18
(USSR)
Kavkaz (Caucasus) May 24, 1975 Klimuk
Sevastyanov
Klimuk and Sevastyanov docked Salyut 4 and spent 61 days in orbit performing experiments.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
(USA-USSR)
Apollo/Soyuz July 15, 1975 Leonov
Kubasov
Stafford
Brand
Slayton
A joint mission to link the last Apollo spacecraft with the Soyuz 19 spacecraft. Soyuz 19 lifted off first. Seven hours later Apollo lifted off. A rendezvous and docking with the Soyuz 19 spacecraft occured on July 17, and the two crews shake hands and begin two days of activities together. The spacecrafts separated on July 19, with Soyuz returning to Earth on July 21 followed by Apollo on July 24.
Soyuz 21
(USSR)
Baikal July 6, 1976 Volynov
Zholobov
The two cosmonauts spent 49 days in space for a mission devoted to manufacturing and military stuff. They returned three weeks early due to physical and psychological problems.
Soyuz 22
(USSR)
Yastreb (Hawk) September 15, 1976 Bykovsky
Aksenov
Soyuz 22 made observations of the Earth's surface with the East German-built MKF-6 camera.
Soyuz 23
(USSR)
Rodon October 14, 1976 Zudov
Rozhdestvensky
Soyuz 23 made the first Soviet splashdown when its guidance system malfunctioned during an attempted docking of Salyut 5.
Soyuz 24
(USSR)
Terek February 7, 1977 Gorbatko
Glazkov
These two cosmonauts spent 17 days aboard Salyut 5 in a mission to collect military photos.
Soyuz 26
(USSR)
Taimyr December 10, 1977 Romanenko
Grechko
Romanenko and Grechko set a space endurance record aboard Salyut 6, spending 96 days in space. They were visited by two teams of cosmonauts and received supplies from an unmanned Progress spacecraft. They returned to Earth aboard Soyuz 27.
Soyuz 27
(USSR)
Pamir January 10, 1978 Dzhanibekov
Makarov
Dzhanibekow and Makarov docked Sakyut 6, swapped spacecraft with Romanenko and Grechko, and returned to Earth in Soyuz 26 after five days.
Soyuz 28
(USSR)
Zenit (Zenith) March 2, 1978 Gubarev
Remek
Czechoslovakian Remek became the first non-American, non-Soviet in space. He and Gubarev joined the other cosmonauts aboard Salyut 6 and spent seven days doing experiments.
Soyuz 29
(USSR)
Foton (Photon) June 15, 1978 Kovalenok
Ivanchenkov
These two cosmonauts set a new endurance record of 136 days in space as the second crew of Salyut 6. They were visited by two teams of cosmonauts and received supplies from three Progess spacecraft. They returned aboard Soyuz 31.
Soyuz 30
(USSR)
Kavkaz (Caucasus) June 27, 1978 Klimuk
Hermaszewski
Hermaszewski became the first Polish cosmonaut in space. He and Klimuk spent a week aboard Salyut 6 performing experiments.
Soyuz 31
(USSR)
Yastreb (Hawk) August 26, 1978 Bykovsky
Jaehn
Jaehn became the first German space traveler. He and Bykovsky spent a week aboard Salyut 6 performing experiments.
Soyuz 32
(USSR)
Proton February 25, 1979 Lyakhov
Ryumin
Lyakhov and Ryumin set another endurance record of 175 days in space as the third crew of Salyut 6. Some of their work included observations with a KT-10 radio telescope. They returned aboard Soyuz 34, which had been launched unmanned.
Soyuz 35
(USSR)
Dnepr (Dnieper) April 9, 1980 Popov
Ryumin
Ryumin and Popov spent six months in space as the fourth crew of Salyut 6.
Soyuz 36
(USSR)
Orion May 26, 1980 Kubasov
Farkas
Farkas, the first Hungarian in space, and Kubasov visited Salyut 6 on their mission of 7 days.
Soyuz T-2
(USSR)
Yupiter (Jupiter) June 5, 1980 Malyshev
Aksenov
This mission performed the first test flight of an improved Soyuz. The new guidance system failed on approach to Salyut 6, but the astronauts were able to dock at Salyut 6 and spend three days with their fellow comrades.
Soyuz 37
(USSR)
Terek July 23, 1980 Gorbatko
Tuan
Tuan became the first Vietnamese in space as he and Gorbatko visited Salyut 6 and made a commemoration of the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics.
Soyuz 38
(USSR)
Taimyr September 18, 1980 Romanenko
Mendez
Mendez became the first Cuban in space as he and Romanenko visited Salyut 6 for a week.
Soyuz T-3
(USSR)
Mayak (Beacon) November 27, 1980 Kizim
Makarov
Strekalov
During this 12-day mission, the cosmonauts made repairs to Salyut 6 in preparation for the fifth crew.
Soyuz T-4
(USSR)
Foton March 12, 1981 Kovalenok
Savinykh
Kovalenok and Savinykh became the fifth crew of Salyut 6. Salyut 6 had well exceeded its design lifetime, but the cosmonauts spent 74 days there performing experiments and having guests (fellow cosmonauts, of course).
Soyuz 39
(USSR)
Pamir March 22, 1981 Dzhanibekov
Gurragcha
Gurragcha became the first Mongolian in space as he and Dzhanibekov visited Salyut 6 for a 7-day mission.
STS-1
(USA)
Columbia April 12, 1981 Young
Crippen
The first winged, reusable spacecraft, now known as Space Shuttle, to be launched.
Soyuz 40
(USSR)
Dnepr May 14, 1981 Popov
Prunariu
The first Romanian in space, Prunariu and Soviet Popov spent seven days aboard Salyut 6.
STS-2
(USA)
Columbia November 12, 1981 Engle
Truly
The second flight of Shuttle Columbia. Technical problems shortened the mission from five to two days.
STS-3
(USA)
Columbia March 22, 1982 Lousma
Fullerton
The third Columbia Shuttle flight test.
Soyuz T-5
(USSR)
Elbrus May 13, 1982 Berezovoy
Lebedev
Berezovoy and Lebedev spent an unprecedented 7 months in space aboard the new space station, Salyut 7. During their mission they deployed a scientific satellite and performed several spacewalks.
Soyuz T-6
(USSR)
Pamir June 24, 1982 Dzhanibekov
Ivanchenkov
Chretien
Chretien became the first French and Western European to go into space aboard a Soviet vehicle. The three cosmonauts spent 7 days aboard Salyut 7.
STS-4
(USA)
Columbia June 27, 1982 Mattingly
Hartsfield
The fourth and final Shuttle flight test carried a Department of Defense experiment and the first commercial experiment.
Soyuz T-7
(USSR)
Dnepr August 19, 1982 Popov
Serebrov
Savitskaya
Savitskaya became the second woman in space as she and fellow cosmonauts visited Salyut 7 for a 7 day mission.
STS-5
(USA)
Columbia November 11, 1982 Brand
Overmyer
Allen
Lenoir
First operational flight of the Space Shuttle and the first manned spacecraft to carry four crewmembers.
STS-6
(USA)
Challenger April 4, 1983 Weitz
Karol Bobko
Musgrave
Peterson
First flight of Shuttle Challenger. The first spacewalk of the shuttle program was performed.
STS-7
(USA)
Challenger June 18, 1983 Crippen
Hauck
Fabian
Ride
Thagard
Ride became the first American woman to make a space flight. The five-person crew that deployed three satellites.
Soyuz T-9
(USSR)
Proton June 27, 1983 Lyakhov
Alexandrov
Lyakhov and Alexandrov spent five months aboard the Salyut 7/Kosmos 1443 complex. Salyut 7 suffered a massive fuel leak that almost disabled the station and forced the cosmonauts to make two spacewalks for repairs. They returned safely to Earth on Novermber 23.
STS-8
(USA)
Challenger April 30, 1983 Truly
Brandenstein
Bluford
Gardner
Thornton
Bluford became the first African-American to go into space. First nighttime launch and landing in the Shuttle program.
STS-9
(USA)
Columbia, Spacelab November 28, 1983 Young
Shaw
Garriott
Parker
Lichtenberg
Merbold
First flight of the European Space Agency's Spacelab. Scientists of the crew conducted 72 experiments.
41-B
(USA)
Challenger February 3, 1984 Brand
Gibson
McNair
Stewart
McCandless
The first untethered spacewalk in history was made using the manned maneuvering unit (MMU).
Soyuz T-10
(USSR)
Mayak February 8, 1984 Kizim
Solovyov
Atkov
Kizim, Solovyov, and Atkov set a new endurance record by spending eight months aboard Salyut 7. They spent most of their time doing medical research.
Soyuz T-11
(USSR)
Yupiter April 3, 1984 Malyshev
Strekalov
Sharma
Sharma became the first astronaut from India to make a spaceflight as he and his fellow cosmonauts spent a week aboard Salyut 7.
41-C
(USA)
Challenger April 6, 1984 Crippen
Scobee
Hart
van Hoften
Nelson
This mission accomplished the first capture, repair, and redeployment of a satellite. The astronauts also deployed the long-duration exposure facility (LDEF).
Soyuz T-12
(USSR)
Pamir July 17, 1984 Dzhanibekov
Savitskaya
Volk
Savitskaya became the first woman to make a spacewalk during this 11-day resupply mission to Salyut 7.
41-D
(USA)
Discovery August 30, 1984 Hartsfield
Coats
Mullane
Hawley
Resnik
Walker
First flight of the Shuttle Discovery. The Continuous Flow Electrophoresis Experiment was done and three satellites were deployed.
41-G
(USA)
Challenger October 5, 1984 Crippen
McBride
Sullivan
Ride
Leestma
Scully-Power
Garneau
First crew of seven. The astronauts deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space.
51-A
(USA)
Discovery November 8, 1984 Hauck
Walker
Allen
Fisher
Gardner
Two new satellites were launched and two broken satellites were retrieved.
51-C
(USA)
Discovery January 24, 1985 Mattingly
Shriver
Onizuka
Buchli
Payton
The first classified U.S. Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
51-D
(USA)
Discovery April 12, 1985 Bobko
Williams
Seddon
Griggs
Hoffman
Walker
Garn
This mission deployed a communications satellite.
51-B
(USA)
Challenger, Spacelab April 29, 1985 Overmyer
Gregory
Lind
Thagard
Thornton
Wang
van den Berg
Spacelab 3, the first life sciences and space manufacturing Spacelab mission. 14 experiments were carried out.
Soyuz T-13
(USSR)
Pamir June 6 1985 Dzhanibekov
Savinykh
These two cosmonauts restored the dead Salyut 7 by spending 112 days performing repairs on the space station.
51-G
(USA)
Discovery June 17, 1985 Brandenstein
Creighton
Fabian
Nagel
Lucid
Baudry
Al-Saud
The first tri-national space crew deployed three satellites. Nagel became the 100th American in space.
51-F
(USA)
Challenger, Spacelab July 29, 1985 Fullerton
Bridges
Henize
Musgrave
England
Acton
Bartoe
Spacelab 2 carried experiments in life sciences, plasma physics, astronomy, and solar physics.
51-I
(USA)
Discovery August 27, 1985 Engle
Covey
van Hoften
Lounge
Fisher
The astronauts deployed two satellites, then retrieved and repaired a third.
Soyuz T-14
(USSR)
Cheget September 17, 1985 Vasyutin
Grechko
Volkov
Soyuz T-14 was the first "relief mission" in space history. They replaced Savinykh and Dzhanibekov of Soyuz T-13.
51-J
(USA)
Atlantis October 3, 1985 Bobko
Grabe
Hilmers
Stewart
Pailes
The first flight of Shuttle Atlantis was the second classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
61-A
(USA)
Challenger, Spacelab D1 October 30, 1985 Hartsfield
Nagel
Dunbar
Buchli
Bluford
Furrer
Messerschmid
Ockels
Spacelab D1 was controlled by the West German Federal Aerospace Research Establishment (DFVLR). It carried experiments concerning materials processing, communications, and microgravity.
61-B
(USA)
Atlantis November 26, 1985 Shaw
O'Connor
Ross
Cleave
Spring
Walker
Neri Vela
The crew of Mission 61-B tested space construction techniques.
61-C
(USA)
Columbia January 12, 1986 Gibson
Bolden
Nelson
Hawley
Chang-Diaz
Cenker
This mission had lots of problems and had to be shortened.
51-L
(USA)
Challenger January 28, 1986 Scobee
Smith
Onizuka
Resnik
McNair
Jarvis
McAuliffe
All seven crew members were killed when Challenger exploded 75 seconds after launch. McAuliffe was to be the first teacher in space.
Soyuz T-15
(USSR)
Mayak March 13, 1986 Kizim
Solovyov
The 125-day Soyuz T-15 mission was one of the most difficult and successful missions in Soviet space history. Kizim and Solovyov activated the new Mir space station and then transferred over to Salyut 7 where they performed two spacewalks. Then they flew back to the Mir space station to perform some system tests.
Soyuz TM-2
(USSR)
Taimyr February 6, 1987 Romanenko
Laveikin
Romanenko and Laveikin made up the second resident Mir crew. Romanenko spent 326 days aboard the station while Laveikin spent 174 days there.
Soyuz TM-3
(USSR)
Vityaz (Knight) July 22, 1987 Viktorenko
Alexandrov
Faris
Faris became the first Syrian in space as he and his fellow cosmonauts spent seven days in space. Alexandrov replaced Laveikin on the Mir station, spending 160 days in space.
Soyuz TM-4
(USSR)
Okean December 21, 1987 Titov
Manarov
Levchenko
Titov and Manarov completed the first year-long mission when they became the third Mir crew. They performed three spacewalks, and several manufacturing and astronomical instruments.
Soyuz TM-5
(USSR)
Rodnik (Spring) June 7, 1988 Solovyov
Savinykh
Alexandrov
The first Bulgarian in space, Alexandrov and his fellow cosmonauts performed experiments for Bulgaria.
Soyuz TM-6
(USSR)
Proton August 29, 1988 Lyakhov
Polyakov
Mohmand
Mohmand became the first space traveler for Afghanistan as he and his fellow cosmonauts visited the Mir station for seven days. Polyakov stayed on Mir for 240 days to monitor the health of the resident crew.
STS-26
(USA)
Discovery September 29, 1988 Hauck
Covey
Lounge
Hilmers
Nelson
The Shuttle program's return to flight after the Challenger disaster.
Soyuz TM-7
(USSR)
Donbass November 26, 1988 Volkov
Krikalev
Chretien
The new crew for the Mir station recorded the first international spacewalk of French Chretien and Soviet Volkov. Chretien returned after 24 days while the others stayed on Mir for 150.
STS-27
(USA)
Atlantis December 2, 1988 Gibson
Gardner
Mullane
Ross
Shepherd
The third classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
STS-29
(USA)
Discovery March 13, 1989 Coats
Blaha
Buchli
Springer
Bagian
This mission deployed the third tracking and data relay satellite into orbit.
STS-30
(USA)
Atlantis May 4, 1989 Walker
Grabe
Thagard
Cleave
Lee
Deployed the radar mapping space probe Magellan, sending it on a nine-month voyage to Venus.
STS-28
(USA)
Columbia August 13, 1989 Shaw
Richards
Leestma
Adamson
Brown
The fourth classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
Soyuz TM-8
(USSR)
Vityaz (Knight) September 6, 1989 Viktorenko
Serebrov
This fifth Mir crew spent 166 days in space. The crew added the Kvant 2 module to the station and also conducted the first tests of the Soviet manned manuevering unit during spacewalks.
STS-34
(USA)
Atlantis October 18, 1989 Williams
McCulley
Lucid
Chang-Diaz
Baker
Deployed the space probe Galileo, sending it on its five-year mission to Jupiter.
STS-33
(USA)
Discovery November 22, 1989 Gregory
Blaha
Carter
Musgrave
Thornton
The fifth Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
STS-32
(USA)
Columbia January 9, 1990 Brandenstein
Wetherbee
Dunbar
Ivins
Low
This Shuttle mission deployed the Syncom IV-5 (Leasat) and returned the Long Duration Explosure Facility to Earth.
Soyuz TM-9
(USSR)
Rodnik February 11, 1990 Solovyov
Balandin
Solovyov and Balandin became the sixth Mir crew as they spent over 179 days in space.
STS-36
(USA)
Atlantis February 28, 1990 Creighton
Casper
Hilmers
Mullane
Thuot
The sixth classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
STS-31
(USA)
Discovery April 24, 1990 Shriver
Bolden
McCandless
Hawley
Sullivan
Deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.
Soyuz TM-10
(USSR)
Vulkan August 1, 1990 Manakov
Strekalov
The seventh Mir crew spent over 131 days in space.
STS-41
(USA)
Discovery October 6, 1990 Richards
Cabana
Melnick
Shepherd
Akers
Deployed the Ulysses space probe, sending it on a journey around the poles of the sun.
STS-38
(USA)
Atlantis November 15, 1990 Covey
Culbertson
Springer
Meade
Gemar
The last classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.
STS-35
(USA)
Columbia December 2, 1990 Brand
Gardner
Hoffman
Lounge
Parker
This Spacelab mission performed astronomical experiments with the Astro 1 Spacelab.
Soyuz TM-11
(USSR)
Derbent December 2, 1990 Afanasyev
Manarov
Akiyama
The first Soviet commercial passenger, Japanese newsman Akiyama spent 7 days with his fellow cosmonauts. Afanasyev and Manarov stayed at Mir as the eighth crew for 175 days.
STS-37
(USA)
Atlantis April 5, 1991 Nagel
Cameron
Godwin
Ross
Apt
Deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory.
STS-39
(USA)
Discovery April 28,1991 Coats
Hammond
Harbaugh
McMonagle
Bluford
Veach
Hieb
This unclassified Department of Defense Shuttle mission was devoted to military scientific experiments.

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