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Arches National Park Geology Tour provides an extensive, visually rich description of the geology of Arches, by Deborah Ragland, Ph.D. See our DVD collection.
There are many types of dangerous radiation in space. Astronauts must be careful to remain safe and healthy. Spacewalks are especially dangerous times for radiation exposure.
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Radiation Dangers to Astronauts

Astronauts are exposed to many different types of dangerous radiation in space. Space agencies, like NASA, must carefully monitor the radiation exposure of astronauts to make sure they remain safe and healthy.

Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field both serve as radiation shields for those of us who are on Earth's surface. Most piloted space missions (ones with astronauts aboard) "fly" in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), slightly above Earth's atmosphere. Astronauts in LEO are still within the protective bubble of Earth's magnetosphere, which deflects many types of particle radiation. Astronauts are outside of the protection of our atmosphere, however, and are thus at greater risk of exposure to high-energy electromagnetic radiation including ultraviolet "light", X-rays, and gamma rays. Even in LEO, astronauts must take precautions to deal with radiation, especially when they are outside on spacewalks or when "solar storms" are brewing.

Trips by astronauts to the Moon, Mars, and asteroids will provide us with bigger challenges protecting astronauts from radiation as they leave the protection of Earth's magnetosphere behind. The Moon offers almost no protection, as it lacks both an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Mars has a very thin atmosphere and a weak, regional magnetic field in some locations. Early Mars bases may be built at low elevation (at the bottom of the "deepest" parts of the atmosphere) locations that are also within a regional magnetic field, in order to take advantage of as much natural radiation shielding as possible.

Last modified October 5, 2009 by Randy Russell.

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Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA