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The Winter 2010 issue of The Earth Scientist includes a variety of educational resources, ranging from astronomy to glaciers. Check out the other publications and classroom materials in our online store.
Picture of Apollo 8 spacecraft
NASA

Apollo 8

Originally planned as another Earth orbiting mission like Apollo 7, Apollo 8's objectives were changed due to pressure of beating the Soviet Union in the race to the Moon.

Powered by the Saturn V rocket, later used by Apollo 11, Apollo 8 was launched on Dec. 21, 1968 as the first manned lunar mission. Astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell, Jr., and William Anders became the first humans to travel to the Moon and see its farside, successfully accomplishing all their mission objectives during their six days in space.

On Christmas Eve, Apollo 8 completed 10 orbits around the Moon returning live television pictures back to our planet. Over half a billion people watched as Earth rose on the Moon's horizon, realizing the limitless possibilities of space exploration.

Apollo 8 provided astronauts with more experience in space travel, and brought us one step closer to the Apollo program's goal of safely landing humans on the Moon.


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Apollo 11

Driven by a recent surge in space research, the Apollo program hoped to add to the accomplishments of the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions of the late 1960's. Apollo 11 was the name of the first mission...more

Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was one of the most important exploration tools of the past two decades, and will continue to serve as a great resource well into the new millennium. The HST found numerous...more

Apollo 12

Apollo 12 was launched on Nov. 14, 1969, surviving a lightning strike which temporarily shut down many systems, and arrived at the Moon three days later. Astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean descended...more

Apollo 15

Apollo 15 marked the start of a new series of missions from the Apollo space program, each capable of exploring more lunar terrain than ever before. Launched on July 26, 1971, Apollo 15 reached the Moon...more

Deep Impact Mission

NASA chose Deep Impact to be part of a special series called the Discovery Program on July 7, 1999. The Discovery program specializes in low-cost, scientific projects. In May 2001, Deep Impact was given...more

Galileo

The Galileo spacecraft was launched on October 19, 1989. Galileo had two parts: an orbiter and a descent probe that parachuted into Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's main mission was to explore Jupiter and...more

Lunar Orbiter

During 1966 through 1967, five Lunar Orbiter spacecrafts were launched, with the purpose of mapping the Moon's surface in preparation for the Apollo and Surveyor landings. All five missions were successful....more

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