This is a schematic showing where material forms.
Click on image for full size
Image from: After Moons and Planets
The effect of temperatures on the condensation of certain materials
In the picture, the proto-sun is shown at the top, and the temperature in the nebula is shown to get cooler farther away from the proto-sun, towards the bottom of the drawing.
The temperature at which ice begins to form solid material is the freezing temperature, near 250 K on the diagram. The temperature at which rocky materials, of which the terrestrial planets are made of, such as Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Nickel, and Lead, can begin to form solid material, is much higher.
Thus solid material condensed close to the proto-sun, and formed the terrestrial planets. Solid material also condensed in the middle of the nebula, near the proto-Saturn, but Saturn also drew ice and more simple gases from the nebula. The gaseous material which Saturn drew from the nebula stayed, while the gaseous material which the terrestrial planets drew from the nebula probably drifted away.
Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!
Our online store
includes issues of NESTA's quarterly journal, The Earth Scientist
, full of classroom activities on different topics in Earth and space science, ranging from seismology
, rocks and minerals
, and Earth system science
You might also be interested in:
Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. They are non-living, solid, and, like all matter, are made of atoms of elements. There are many different types of minerals and each type is made of particular...more
The most important motions in the atmosphere are winds. The major winds in Saturn's atmosphere are the zonal winds which are made of zones and belts. Zones are high pressure systems and belts are low pressure...more
The striped cloud bands on Saturn, like Jupiter, are divided into belts and zones. In a belt, the wind flows very strongly in one direction only. In a zone, the wind flows very strongly in exactly the...more
The position of the planets in the solar nebula greatly affected their 1. size and 2. composition. This is because of the effect of how cold it was in the nebula. 1. The nebula was a lot warmer close to...more
As shown in this picture, while they were forming in the solar nebula, the nucleii of the planets-to-be (called protoplanets) drew material to themselves from the cloud of gas and dust around them. The...more
Astronomers have discovered a strange shape in Saturn's atmosphere. The shape is a hexagon. The hexagon is near Saturn's North Pole. Scientists aren't quite sure why Saturn has the hexagon shape in its...more
Saturn's South Pole is very stormy. It is also surprisingly warm. A huge, hurricane-like storm is centered on the South Pole. Astronomers recently discovered that the pole is also warmer than any other...more