Irish Chronicles Document Links Between Volcanoes and Weather
A study of over 40,000 written entries in Irish Annals and ice core measurements shows a strong correlation between the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and extreme cold weather in Ireland over a 1200 year period. Data analyzed in this study cover the period from 431 to 1649, during which time up to 48 volcanic eruptions are identified in Greenland ice core records through deposition of volcanic sulfate in annual layers of ice. You can find the study (open access), published on 6 June 2013 in IOP Publishing's journal Environmental Research Letters, at http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/2/024035/article. Find out more about how volcanoes can influence climate.
EF-5 Tornado in El Reno, Oklahoma Widest Ever Recorded in US
The EF-5 tornado that hit El Reno, Oklahoma on May 31st was the widest ever recorded in the US, according to the National Weather Service in Norman Oklahoma. The tornado, which remained on the ground for 40 minutes and reached 2.6 miles across (4.2 km), took the lives of 18 people including storm chasers Tim Samaras, Paul Samaras and Carl Young. For more information on the tornado, visit http://ow.ly/i/2hfDG.
During the week of May 13th, the CO2 level at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii topped 400 ppm repeatedly. Daily levels of CO2 can vary due to weather, and there are seasonal trends as well. The level of atmospheric greenhouse gases continues to increase, now over 120 ppm since the Industrial Revolution began. For more on the Keeling Curve, see http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/. Find out more about greenhouse gases and warming.
This simplistic model of an atom shows protons as red spheres in the central nucleus. This model is NOT to scale; to match the scale of the nucleus the electrons (yellow) should be much smaller and much further away from the nucleus. Original artwork by Windows to the Universe staff (Randy Russell).
A proton is a type of tiny particle. All atoms have protons in them, along with electrons. Most atoms also have neutrons.
Protons and neutrons are just about the same size. However, protons are much, much bigger than electrons. A proton is more than 1,000 times as heavy as an electron!
Protons and electrons have an electrical charge. Protons have a charge of +1, while electrons have a charge of -1.
Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom. Usually there are about as many protons as neutrons. For example, the nucleus of a normal oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 neutrons.
Sometimes protons are found outside of atoms. Some of those protons can get moving very, very fast. Protons like that are a type of particle radiation.
Oxygen (O2) is a kind of gas. A lot of the air you breathe is oxygen. That's a good thing, since we need oxygen to stay alive! About 4/5ths of the air in Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen (N2). Almost all...more
Text for this level has not been written yet. Please see the "Intermediate" text for this page if you want to learn about this topic. To get to the "Intermediate" text, click on the blue "Intermediate"...more
Did you know that a lot of what happens in space physics has to do with the interaction of really tiny particles? These particles like protons and electrons are so tiny that you can't even see them with...more
One way scientists measure the size of something is by its mass. Mass is sort of like weight. Scientists can even measure very, very tiny things like atoms. One measure of the size of an atom is its "atomic...more
Every atom has a nucleus. The nucleus has protons and neutrons in it. Scientists have a special name for the number of protons in an atom. They call it the "atomic number". There are almost 100 different...more
Isotopes are different "versions" of an element. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons. All hydrogen atoms have one proton, all carbon atoms have 6 protons, and all uranium atoms have...more
Everything you see around you is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are so small that you canít see them but scientists have found out that there are many different types of atoms, and each type...more