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We now offer the Cool It! card game in our Science Store. Cool It! is the new card game from UCS that teaches kids about the choices we have when it comes to climate change.
A new study has found that <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Atmosphere/airpollution_intro.html&edu=high">pollution</a> from <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Atmosphere/particulates.html&edu=high">fine particles</a> in the air - mainly the result of burning coal or <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/interior/eruptions.html&edu=high">volcanic eruptions</a> - can shade <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Life/cnidarian.html&edu=high">corals</a> from sunlight and cool the surrounding water resulting in reduced growth rates.  Coral growth rates in the Caribbean were affected by volcanic aerosol emissions in the early 20th century and by aerosol emissions caused by humans in the later 20th century.  For more information, see the <a href="http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_278202_en.html">press release</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of Toby Hudson (Wikimedia Commons)</em></small></p>An artist's rendering of the moment of impact of a massive <a
  href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/our_solar_system/meteors/meteors.html&edu=high">meteorite</a>
  at the end of the Cretaceous (at the end of the <a
  href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/geology/hist_mesozoic.html&edu=high">Mesozoic
  Era</a>). Many
  scientists have concluded for decades that a meteorite four to six kilometers
  in diameter impacted the Earth at this time, resulting in a <a
  href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/past/KTextinction.html&edu=high">mass extinction
  of dinosaurs</a> and many other life forms.  Recent research suggests that
 perhaps <a
  href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/headline_universe/olpa/chicxulub.html&edu=high">massive
  volcanic eruptions</a> may be been responsible for the extinction.<p><small><em>Courtesy of Don Davis, NASA</em></small></p>According to <a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-277">NASA scientists</a>, the Voyager 1 spacecraft entered interstellar space in August 2012, becoming the first spacecraft to leave the <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/our_solar_system/solar_system.html&edu=high">solar system</a>. The space probe is about 19 billion km from the <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/sun/sun.html&edu=high">Sun</a>.  <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/space_missions/voyager.html&edu=high">Voyager 1 and 2</a> were launched in 1977 on a <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/space_missions/voyager.html&edu=high">mission</a> that flew them both by <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/jupiter/jupiter.html&edu=high">Jupiter</a> and <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/saturn/saturn.html&edu=high">Saturn</a>, with Voyager 2 continuing to <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/uranus/uranus.html&edu=high">Uranus</a> and <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/neptune/neptune.html&edu=high">Neptune</a>. Voyager 2 is the longest continuously operated spacecraft. It is about 15 billion km away from the <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/sun/sun.html&edu=high">Sun</a>.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA</em></small></p>On November 7, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda in the Philippines) made landfall, with imated wind speeds of ~315 km/hr - the strongest <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Atmosphere/hurricane/intensity.html&edu=high">tropical cyclone</a> to make landfall in recorded history.  As Haiyan moved across the Philippines before reaching Vietnam and China, its <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Atmosphere/wind.html&edu=high">winds</a> and <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/Atmosphere/hurricane/surge.html&edu=high">storm surge</a> left devastation in its wake, leading to massive loss of life, destruction of homes, and hundreds of thousands of displaced inhabitants. <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/09/world/iyw-how-to-help-typhoon-haiyan/index.html">How to Help</a><p><small><em>Image courtesy of COMS-1, SSEC, University of Wisconsin-Madison</em></small></p>An <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usc000905e.php">8.6 magnitude earthquake</a> struck on 11 April 2012 off of Banda Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia, followed by a strong aftershock.  Earthquake motion was primarily horizontal.  A tsunami warning was issued for the Indian Ocean, but was cancelled at 12:36 UTC.  A tsunami was observed at 1 meter or less. Find out more about <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/geology/quake_1.html&edu=high">earthquake</a> and <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/earth/tsunami1.html&edu=high">tsunami</a> processes. Check out the resources <a href="/php/tour_test_sqli.php?page=/teacher_resources/2011_AGU-NESTA_GIFT_Workshop.html&edu=high">here</a>.<p><small><em>NOAA</em></small></p>New observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft provide  support for the hypothesis that Mercury harbors abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed (shown in red) polar craters. Areas where polar deposits of ice imaged by Earth-based radar are shown in yellow.<p><small><em>Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington/National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo Observatory</em></small></p>

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF