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Quickie Questions - Humans - Astronauts/Astronomers

Date Answered Questioner (age, location) Question Answer
March 29, 2010Nicole (California)is it fun going to space?Read this interview with astronaut Chris Hadfield. I am sure you will agree with me that they have lots of fun!
March 25, 2010Clare (Australia)If a person was to go to mercury, what would they need in a space suit to survive? and why?The temperature range on Mercury is -184oC to 427oC (-300oF to 800oF), and there is no significant atmosphere in Mercury. So, a space suit for an astronaut to survive in Mercury would require, at least, air supply and a temperature control!
March 19, 2010Motloi (SOUTH AFRICA)is the a formula used to calculate the distance between earth and stars?Our web page How do astronomers measure the distance to stars? answers your question.
January 5, 2010priscilla (california)is it true that when astronuts r in the spaceship once theres no more gravity they all of a sudden they start flowting?Yes, the lack of gravity made the astronauts weightless, and they float inside the ships. See how much fun they have in this interesting clip.
December 25, 2009hunter (wagga wagga)hi how long do you have to train to be an astronautI can't answer your question with a concrete response, instead you can see by yourself a real example of NASA requirements for astronauts:
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas
Announcement for Mission Specialist and Pilot Astronaut Candidates
Astronaut Candidate Program Basic Qualification Requirements
Applicants must meet the following minimum requirements prior to submitting an application.
Mission Specialist Astonaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited institution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable and may be substituted for part or all of the experience requirement(master's degree= 1 year, doctoral degree= 3 years). Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. Ability to pass a NASA class II space physical, which is similar to a civilian or military class II flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/150 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood Pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 3. Height between 58.5 and 76 inches.
Pilot Astronaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited instution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable. Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. At least 1000 hours pilot-in-command time in jet aircraft. Flight test experience highly desirable. 3. Ability to pass a NASA class I space physical which is similar to a civilian or military class I flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/50 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 4. Height between 64 and 76 inches.
Citizenship Requirements. Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must be citizens of the United States. Note on Academic Requirements Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must meet the basic education requirements for NASA engineering and scientific positions -- specifically: successful completion of standard professional curriculum in an accredited college or university leading to at least a bachelor's degree with major study in an appropriate field of engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. The following degree fields, while related to engineering and the sciences, are not considered qualifying: -Degrees in technology(Engineering Technology, Aviation Technology, Medical Technology, etc.) -Degrees in Psychology(except for Clinical Psychology, Physiological Psychology, or Experimental Psychology which are qualifying) -Degrees in Nursing -Degrees in Social Sciences(Geography, Anthropology, Archaeology, etc.) -Degrees in Aviation, Aviation Management, or similar fields.
October 8, 2009NUR IFAWATI (MALAYSIA)is it true that Yuri gagarin is the first human who went to the moon?Yuri Gagarin was the first human to reach the outer space. He didn't visit the Moon.
September 28, 2009charlotte (california)has anyone ever died in space?The information you have requested can be found here.
September 28, 2009Yogesh (karnataka/India)What is the weight of the Space Suitfrom NASA's website THE SPACESUIT: The maximum total weight of the largest size spacesuit assembly, including the liquid cooling and ventilation garment, urine collection device, helmet and visor assembly, communications carrier assembly, insuit drink bag, and biomedical instrumentation subsystem, is 107 pounds.
July 20, 2009meg (canada)who where the original astronauts?The first astronaut was Yuri Gagarin, from the Soviet Union.
March 5, 2009aj (N.C)DO ASTRONAUTS NEED TO DO DISHES OR LAUNDRYNo, they don't do dishes or laundry. NASA'a websites Space Food and Space Wear will give you the inside information.
February 19, 2009Mena (antioch tn)is their a kid that went to spaceThe youngest astronaut in the history of space exploration has been Sally Ride, who was 32 years, 23 days old when she flew on STS-7 in June 1983.
January 29, 2009KAJAL (KARNATAKA/INDIA)Sir i wanted to know about SUNITA WILLIAMS'stay in space for so many days? How did she maintain her body in space?Did she have any problems after her flight?please answer my questions. i am very curious to know about her.please help me.Please, visit this NASA web page where Sunita answer many question from the public.
October 16, 2008Courtney (Mississippi)What did Maria Winkelmann Kirch invent?Maria Winkelmann Kirch was a German astronomer who lived between 1670-1720. She discovered the comet of 1702. She also published a paper in 1712 on the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. Maria worked with her husband, Gottfried Kirch in making calendars and ephemerides (tables showing positions of the planets, Sun, and Moon).
October 9, 2008cya (india)if we want to be an astronaut then what sort of studies do we have to do? sir ,can you please give this answer with some more knowledge about them because i want to become an astronaut.NASA astronauts must have at least a bachelor's degree in engineering, science, or mathematics. So, you will need to take lots of math and science classes such as advanced physics and calculus. NASA is downsizing right now, but jobs range from secretaries to biologists to astronomers to engineers. A career as an astronaut could be rewarding for the right person, but yes, they sure do require a lot of schooling!
September 3, 2008Pam (Tennessee/USA)Who was the female teacher that died on the shuttle ?It was CHRISTA CORRIGAN MCAULIFFE. Here you can see her NASA biographical data.
May 23, 2008angel (philipines)who became the first man to step onto the surface of the Moon.On July 21, 1969, American Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon.
May 2, 2008joan (cascade)Where was Johann G. Galle bornJohann G Galle, the discoverer of Neptune, was a German astronomer born June 9, 1812.
April 25, 2008Sally (Asia/South Korea)i want to know why astronauts cannot walk after coming back from space.
please answer.
i really like the solar system and i really am curious!!!
All muscles in the body, including the HEART, are used in the space in a less demanding physical environment, and they are weakened for this lack of physical stress. Once an astronaut is back to the gravity of our planet, requieres some time and reaconditioning to be able to safely wallk.
April 22, 2008Erin (Arizona)If the temperature of the moon ranges from extreme highs to extreme lows, how do astronauts land on the moon without it being too hot or too cold for humans to handle?Astronauts use space suits that somehow similar to the modern diving and/or gas protective suits. But in contrast, the space suit garment must not only be airtight, resistant to external influences and built in such a manner that it allows movement to be as unrestricted as possible; additionally, it must have a large tensile strength because a gas pressure (overpressure of the air in relation to empty space) of one full atmosphere exists within the garment. And moreover, it should be insensitive to the extremely low temperatures that will prevail in empty space due to heat loss by thermal emission. The garment must neither become brittle nor otherwise lose strength. Adapted from NASA-Space Suit.
April 15, 2008Danika (canada)What EXACTLY do you eat in space?Is it dehidrated?The advacement technology lets astronauts eat very similar meals to what we have on earth. Everything is transported in sealed packages after being specially treated to preserve and prevent bacteria and other microbes from growing on them. More information can be found in NASA's Space Food website.
April 3, 2008Jeevithaha (Selangor)How do astronauts eat in space?The advacement technology lets astronauts eat very similar meals to what we have on earth. Everything is transported in sealed packages after being specially treated to preserve and prevent bacteria and other microbes from growing on them. More information can be found in NASA's Space Food website.
February 3, 2008Muhammad (Malaysia)Who is the first Malaysian astronout?Malaysian first astronaut is Dr Sheikh Muszaphar.
January 4, 2008Caitlin (Tx ,USA)How many times did John Glenn orbit earth the second time he went to space?Discovery mission STS-95 was launched on October 29, 1998. This was a 9 day mission during which the crew supported a variety of research payloads. This mission was accomplished in 134 Earth orbits, traveling 3.6 million miles in 213 hours and 44 minutes. John Glenn was a member of the crew.
December 19, 2007Shaheen (India)do astronauts sleep there as they do here?In space there is no up or down and there is no gravity. As a result, astronauts are weightless and can sleep in any orientation. However, they have to attach themselves to a wall, a seat or a bunk bed inside the crew cabin so they don't float around and bump into something. More information in NASA website Space Sleep.
December 18, 2007rix (phillipines)whatis kepler's law?Keppler's Laws describe the motions of objects around the Sun. In their more simple form they can be stated as: Kepler's elliptical orbit law: The planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. Kepler's equal-area law: The line connecting a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time. Kepler's law of periods: The time required for a planet to orbit the sun is proportional to the long axis of the ellipse raised to the 3/2 power. The constant of proportionality is the same for all the planets.
July 27, 2007sirisha (India)what happens to a person in space during day timewhen sun comes?Actually, nothing happens. A space walk, or EVA (extravehicular activity), requires a long time of preparation, and once out the ship, tha astronauts are protected by their space suits and visors. However, when there is a strong possibility of energetic particles coming from the Sun, the EVA is cancelled.
July 23, 2007Ndeche (Nigeria)how does astronomer takes bathThere is no shower in the shuttles, so astronauts have to have sponge baths until their return to earth. This NASA page answers this and other related questions.
July 17, 2007Lucy (scotland)how many people have been on the moon?Twelve astronauts, all Americans, have actually walked on the surface of the Moon. they are: 1. Neil Armstrong - July, 1969 2. Edwin Aldrin - July, 1969 3. Charles Conrad - November, 1969 4. Alan Bean - November, 1969 5. Alan Shepard - February, 1971 6. Edgar Mitchell - February, 1971 7. David Scott - July, 1971 8. James Irwin - July, 1971 9. John Young - April, 1972 10. Charles Duke - April, 1972 11. Gene Cernan - December, 1972 12. Harrison Schmitt - December, 1972.
July 6, 2007Quannesia (North Carolina)What effects did Neil Armstong have on the world as being the 1st man on the moon?As it happens with any other explorer, to be the first in reaching a new planet (or land, or pole, or ocean depth, etc) is to open the door for following missions.
July 5, 2007kristen (ms)what are the requirements of an astronaut going into space?
What type of rockets do you use?
what do you take?
This is a real example of NASA requirements:
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas
Announcement for Mission Specialist and Pilot Astronaut Candidates
Astronaut Candidate Program Basic Qualification Requirements
Applicants must meet the following minimum requirements prior to submitting an application.
Mission Specialist Astonaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited institution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable and may be substituted for part or all of the experience requirement(master's degree= 1 year, doctoral degree= 3 years). Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. Ability to pass a NASA class II space physical, which is similar to a civilian or military class II flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/150 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood Pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 3. Height between 58.5 and 76 inches.
Pilot Astronaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited instution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable. Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. At least 1000 hours pilot-in-command time in jet aircraft. Flight test experience highly desirable. 3. Ability to pass a NASA class I space physical which is similar to a civilian or military class I flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/50 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 4. Height between 64 and 76 inches.
Citizenship Requirements. Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must be citizens of the United States. Note on Academic Requirements Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must meet the basic education requirements for NASA engineering and scientific positions -- specifically: successful completion of standard professional curriculum in an accredited college or university leading to at least a bachelor's degree with major study in an appropriate field of engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. The following degree fields, while related to engineering and the sciences, are not considered qualifying: -Degrees in technology(Engineering Technology, Aviation Technology, Medical Technology, etc.) -Degrees in Psychology(except for Clinical Psychology, Physiological Psychology, or Experimental Psychology which are qualifying) -Degrees in Nursing -Degrees in Social Sciences(Geography, Anthropology, Archaeology, etc.) -Degrees in Aviation, Aviation Management, or similar fields.
July 5, 2007kristen porter (moss point, ms)what are the requirements of an astronaut going into space?
What type of rockets do you use?
what do you take?
This is a real example of NASA requirements:
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas
Announcement for Mission Specialist and Pilot Astronaut Candidates
Astronaut Candidate Program Basic Qualification Requirements
Applicants must meet the following minimum requirements prior to submitting an application.
Mission Specialist Astonaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited institution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable and may be substituted for part or all of the experience requirement(master's degree= 1 year, doctoral degree= 3 years). Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. Ability to pass a NASA class II space physical, which is similar to a civilian or military class II flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/150 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood Pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 3. Height between 58.5 and 76 inches.
Pilot Astronaut Candidate:
1. Bachelor's degree from an accredited instution in engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. Degree must be followed by at least three years of related progressively responsible, professional experience. An advanced degree is desirable. Quality of academic preparation is important. 2. At least 1000 hours pilot-in-command time in jet aircraft. Flight test experience highly desirable. 3. Ability to pass a NASA class I space physical which is similar to a civilian or military class I flight physical and includes the following specific standards: Distant visual acuity: 20/50 or better uncorrected, correctable to 20/20, each eye. Blood pressure: 140/90 measured in sitting position. 4. Height between 64 and 76 inches.
Citizenship Requirements. Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must be citizens of the United States. Note on Academic Requirements Applicants for the Astronaut Candidate Program must meet the basic education requirements for NASA engineering and scientific positions -- specifically: successful completion of standard professional curriculum in an accredited college or university leading to at least a bachelor's degree with major study in an appropriate field of engineering, biological science, physical science, or mathematics. The following degree fields, while related to engineering and the sciences, are not considered qualifying: -Degrees in technology(Engineering Technology, Aviation Technology, Medical Technology, etc.) -Degrees in Psychology(except for Clinical Psychology, Physiological Psychology, or Experimental Psychology which are qualifying) -Degrees in Nursing -Degrees in Social Sciences(Geography, Anthropology, Archaeology, etc.) -Degrees in Aviation, Aviation Management, or similar fields.
July 2, 2007NicoleDid Bonnie Dunbar go to the moon?You can see the official record of Bonnie Dunbar at the NASA-Bonnie Dunbar page.
May 30, 2007Rheanna (NSW, Australia)How did Joclyn Bell's ideas affect scientific developments?Jocelyn Bell Burnell is an astrophysicist who discovered the first radio pulsars.
May 30, 2007julian (pulau pinang)who is the first woman who went to space in history?Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman to fly in space on 16 June 1963, aboard Vostok 6.
April 7, 2007Maya ()How did the astronauts prepare for their lift off to the moon?
Many people tell about what happened when they got there but I am really interested in what happend before they even took off. Please help me.
Astronaut training is highly specialized and requires the efforts of literally hundreds of persons and numerous facilities. For detail information visit the web page NASA/training.
March 23, 2007miko (Canada)What are the three things space explorers need in addittion to knowledge and tools?Many things, but the most important are a spaceship to reach the point to explore, a spacesuit to be able to get out of the ship, and oxygen to breath!
March 5, 2007Rhian (Scotland)How do astranots do the toilet in space?Each Space Shuttle has a toilet that can be used by both men and women. Designed to be as much as possible like those on Earth, the units use flowing air instead of water to move waste through the system. Solid wastes are compressed and stored onboard, and then removed after landing. Wastewater is vented to space, although future systems may recycle it. The air is filtered to remove odor and bacteria and then returned to the cabin. Extracted from NASA web page Living in Space.
February 12, 2007Jourdan (alabama)I want to know all about Guion BlufordA detail biography of Guion Bluford can be found at NASA/Guion Bluford.
May 9, 2001Monica (13, New Jersey, USA)When an astronaut is traveling to space, is he put to sleep during the mission or are some members put to sleep?Well, space travel can be kind of uncomfortable, but there's no need to put any of the astronauts to sleep! The G forces during liftoff can be a bit much and space sickness (nauseau, vomiting and dizziness) isn't much fun, but still no need for putting anyone to sleep. The astronauts do take turns sleeping naturally once in space...they strap into special sleeping bag holders so they won't drift across the cabin!
January 11, 2001Nicole (Florida, USA)I have a solar system cross word puzzle and the question is : The light dawned from the center thanks to this 1543 cannon. It is 10 letters and I have C_ _ e_ n _c_ _Copernicus! He's the one that figured out the Sun was in the center of the solar system and not the Earth. Thus the light dawned in the center!
January 3, 2001Patrick (Oregon, USA)I've heard that becoming an astronomer isn't a very good career. But I hear about astronomers doing very good for themselves all the time. So if I can get it first hand, I'd really appreciate to know how good of a career it really is if you've got a really good education.Well, one of the astronomers working for our site wrote this page on what it means to become an astronomer. Also, the American Astronomical Society put up a page all about careers in astronomy. Those careers could be rewarding for the right person, but yes, they sure do require a lot of schooling!
October 9, 2000Rachel (Idaho, USA)What qualifications do you need to be on the space shuttle as a pilot, mission specialist or payload specialist?To be eligible to fly the space shuttle, you'd need 1,000 hours of flight in a jet aircraft (co-pilot hours don't count!). You'd have to pass a physical including having eyesight of 20/70 uncorrected and 20/20 corrected. You'd have to be between 64-76 inches tall. Because of the necessary flight experience, many shuttle pilots are from the military branches.

The requirements are similar for a mission/payload specialist. Again, you'd have to pass a physical where your eyesight is 20/200 uncorrected and 20/20 corrected. You'd have to be between 58.5-76 inches tall and have a blood pressure of 140/90 while sitting. Mission specialists are picked because of their knowledge or skills that would aid the mission goals. A payload specialist may be picked by the company that owns a special payload.

September 6, 2000Mike (Kansas, USA)Who proved the earth was round by pointing during an eclipse?It was good ole Pythagoras! He noted that the shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse was always curved and that the amount of curvature was the same. The only thing that casts a circular shadow all of the time regardless of its orientation is a sphere. So, people knew the Earth was round far before Columbus' time!
September 6, 2000Don Where do I get plans to build my own telescope?To build your own telescope, you should definitely check out the ATM web site...that's the Amateur Telescope Making web site. Good Luck!
August 4, 2000Sherry (Australia)I would like to know who first discovered constellations and when they discovered constellations.

Ancient civilizations saw different objects in the night sky. Constellations weren't discovered, they were imagined! The Babylonians, Greeks, Romans and other civilizations told us what they saw. We see those stars today and therefore see the constellations!

July 19, 2000Donald (Wyoming, USA )Percival Lowell believed that the irregularities in the motion of the planet Uranus were due to a planet beyond Neptune. His efforts and the efforts of others that followed led to the discovery of what?

Lowell's persistance led to the discovery of the planet Pluto! The ninth planet was finally discovered by astronomer Clyde W. Tombaugh in 1930.

June 16, 2000Mariam (Canada )What does Marc Garneau do for a living now?Is he retired?Astronaut Garneau is still going strong. He is scheduled for launch aboard Endeavour, mission STS-97. He will serve as a mission specialist aboard this mission later this year.
February 2, 2000Sarah (Massachusetts, USA)What types of careers are there in astronomy related fields and approximately how much is the yearly income earned?The American Astronomical Society has a good page on Careers in Astronomy which should help you out.
June 4, 1999Christina (Texas)What are the differences between the two fields of astronomy or astrophysics.There is no longer really a difference between astronomy and astrophysics. Now, everyone needs a huge amount of math and physics to enter this field. A PhD really is required to get a good job, since there are about twice as many astronomers as there are job openings! All astronomers have to be very knowledgeable in the areas of mathematics, physics, statistics, problem solving, and computer programming.
February 4, 1999Ted (Kansas, USA)I have recently been introduced to a book by Zecharia Sitchin...Have astronomers (archeoastromers) studied in perhaps association with ancient near east historians and linguists the claims made by Sitchin is his books. Is this science fiction or a valid area of study?Sitchin's works are considered by mainstream scientists to be in a class with UFO's and cults. But you might check out for yourself the pros and cons.
February 3, 1999Shahab I am interested to know whether Neil Armstrong lives in Lebanon in the middle east or in America. I also want to know whether Neil Armstrong has changed his religion. This is a rumor I have been hearing since I was small.Neil Armstrong does live in Lebanon...on a farm in Lebanon, Ohio. The rumor about his converting to Islam is just that--a rumor.
November 12, 1998Jacqui (Australia) and Joyce (Michigan, USA)What school subjects do I need to take in order to become an astronaut?????? What kinds of degrees do they look for when choosing potential employees, and in what fields do they work in?NASA astronauts must have at least a bachelor's degree in engineering, science, or mathematics. So, you will need to take lots of math and science classes such as advanced physics and calculus. NASA is downsizing right now, but jobs range from secretaries to biologists to astronomers to engineers.
November 12, 1998Rebecca (Texas, USA)How did you discover planets and stars if you can't go to them?Astronomers use telescopes and do lots of calculations based on where the object is and how it moves to decide what it is, and predict where it will be in the future.
November 10, 1998Casey (Illinois, USA)How do you get into a spacesuit?The spacesuits that astronauts have to wear are pretty complicated, and difficult to put on! Here is NASA's spacesuit page, with some diagrams.
November 10, 1998Chris (Florida, USA)Who invented the pressurized spacesuit?An American aviator named Wiley Post was one of the pioneers in pressurized spacesuit design.
August 27, 1998Stephanie (California, USA)I want to become an astronomer. But I have a fetish, I'm a material girl and I want to be wealthy. So do astronomers make a lot of money? Not including grants, what is the average salary?Immediately after getting a PhD in astronomy, you can expect to make $28-38,000. After 10 or 15 years or so, and working at the right place, you might make $50-80,000. Like many other careers, there are a wide range of possibilities, all the way from the high $20,000's to the low $150,000's.
March 3, 1998Steph (West Virginia, USA) How do astronomers use technology?Technology is putting knowledge to practical use. Nearly everything an astronomer does involves technology in some form. Satellites view the Earth and send communications. Telescopes are used to view the planets, stars, galaxies, comets. Probes are sent to planets to bring back information about planet surfaces. Space shuttles are used to send men into space to learn more about living in space. Astronomers use the knowledge and instruments they have to gather new knowledge, and then to make it work for us, in ways like storing energy from the sun, and perhaps someday living in space.
February 26, 1998Barb and Scout troop (Maryland, USA) Could you please tell me why astronauts wear jumpsuit like clothing on the space crafts and then wear all that gear when they go outside the spacecraft?The astronauts' clothing is designed to be comfortable and functional. The tee shirt and matching jacket and pants are made from soft cotton and have lots of pockets and velcro loops for storing small items.

Astronauts need 'all that gear' in order to stay alive in space. The spacesuit has a hard helmet and upper torso, with flexible arms, legs, and lower torso. The suit provides the astronaut with air. It also protects them from hot and cold temperatures and other space conditions, like near-vacuum. The suit is equipped with a radio to keep in contact with the shuttle, and a propulsion system to maneuver in space. Everything in the space suit is designed to help the astronaut work as well as possible.

November 26, 1997Alex (Colorado, USA)How many women have walked on the Moon?So far, no women have walked on the Moon. If you want to see some ways women have been involved in the U.S. space program see Nicole's essay.

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