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Picture of Ernest Rutherford
The Bettmann Archive. From painting by James Gunn (1932).

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand-born physicist who lived between 1871-1937. He is called the father of nuclear physics because of his studies on the structure of an atom. Rutherford believed that an atom is like a small planetary system, with the protons and neutrons in the center (like the sun), circled by electrons (like planets).


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Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms

What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, school administrators need to know to create and support such experiences?...more

Florence Bascom

Florence Bascom, who lived from 1862 until 1945, was one of the most important geologists in the United States. She studied mineral crystals by looking at them very closely with a microscope. She also...more

Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who lived between 1885-1962. He studied the structure of atoms and developed a new theory about how the electrons in an atom were arranged. After helping build the first...more

Marie Curie

Marie Curie was a physicist and chemist who lived between 1867-1934. She studied radioactivity and the effects of x-rays. She was born Maria Skłodowska in Warsaw, Poland. Women could not study then...more

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a German physicist who lived between 1879-1955. He is probably the most well-known scientist in recent history. Have you heard of Einstein's famous theory? It is called the theory...more

Robert Goddard

Robert Goddard was an American physicist who lived between 1882-1945. He studied rockets and showed how they could be used to travel into outer space and to the Moon. Goddard experimented with different...more

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Heisenberg was a German physicist who lived between 1901-1976. Heisenberg is most famous for his "uncertainty principle", which explains the impossibility of knowing exactly where something is...more

Edwin Hubble

Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer who lived between 1889-1953. He spent a lot of time looking at groups of stars and planets, called galaxies, and trying to explain their motion. He found that all...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA