Florence Bascom, geologist, holding a compass
Florence Bascom Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Women's History Archives at Smith College
Florence Bascom (1862-1945) was one of the first female geologists in the United States and her colleagues regarded her as one of the nationís most important geologists. In 1896 she was the first woman hired by the U.S. Geological Survey. But she is better known for her work at Bryn Mawr College where she founded one of the best college geology departments in the country.
Bascom was an expert in the study of mineral crystals. She studied their properties by looking at them under a microscope, a science called petrography. She also studied metamorphic rocks, how mountains like the Appalachians were formed, and how the rocks that make up mountains erode over time.
It wasnít easy for a woman to study for advanced degrees in the United States at that time, but that didnít stop Florence Bascom! She earned two bachelorís degrees and a masterís degree from the University of Wisconsin and then earned a Ph.D. in geology from Johns Hopkins University. She was the second woman to ever earn a Ph.D. in geology in the United States. When Florence enrolled in the University of Wisconsin in 1877, female students were only allowed to use the library and gymnasium at certain times, and were not allowed to enter a classroom filled with men. In 1889, Florence was permitted to take graduate school classes at Johns Hopkins University but had to sit behind a screen during classes so that she did not disrupt the male students.
Florence started teaching geology at Bryn Mawr college in 1895. She developed a collection of minerals, rocks, and fossils for the college and influenced many generations of students. She was very proud of her studentsí success over several decades. In 1931 she wrote to a fellow professor, "I have considerable pride in the fact that some of the best work done in geology today by women, ranking with that done by men, has been done by my students. . . . these are all notable young women who will be a credit to the science of geology."
Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!
Learn about Earth and space science, and have fun while doing it! The games
section of our online store
includes a climate change card game
and the Traveling Nitrogen game
You might also be interested in:
How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable....more
A large amount of metamorphism over a broad geographic area is called regional metamorphism. Movements of the Earth's tectonic plates are the primary cause of regional metamorphism. As continental plates...more
Geology is the study of rocks and geologists are the people who study them! There are many different types of geologists. Some of the common types are listed below. Mineralogists study minerals. Petrologist...more
Florence Bascom (1862-1945) was one of the first female geologists in the United States and her colleagues regarded her as one of the nationís most important geologists. In 1896 she was the first woman...more
Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who lived between 1885-1962. He investigated atomic structure, modifying Rutherford's old model of an atom by confining electrons to orbits of specific radii. Bohr also...more
Marie Curie was a physicist and chemist who lived between 1867-1934. She contributed greatly to our understanding of radioactivity and the effects of x-rays. She was born Maria Skłodowska in Warsaw,...more
Albert Einstein was a German physicist who lived between 1879-1955. His special and general theories of relativity, theory of Brownian motion, work in quantum physics, statistical mechanics, and on the...more
Robert Goddard was an American physicist who lived between 1882-1945. He was a pioneer of modern rocketry who discovered that liquid fuel is more efficient than solid fuel. Although Goddard's first rocket...more