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Dig into Montana Before History: 11K Years of Hunter-Gatherers in the Rockies and Plains by D. H. MacDonald, Ph.D. See our online store book collection.

Jabir Ibn Haiyan

Jabir Ibn Haiyan was an Arab chemist who lived in the late 700's. Although he died in 803, the date of his birth is uncertain. For his experimental investigation of common chemical processes, Ibn Haiyan is considered the father of modern chemistry. He helped turn chemistry into a respectable science, away from the legends of alchemy.

Ibn Haiyan was also a pioneer in the field of applied science. He developed techniques for the making of steel, dyeing of cloth, and prevention of rust, improving the quality of everyday life. In addition to his discovery of many acids, Ibn Haiyan built instruments which made distillation, crystallization, and evaporation easier.


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Wangari Maathai

"We have a special responsibility to the ecosystem of this planet. In making sure that other species survive we will be ensuring the survival of our own." - Wangari Maathai Wangari Maathai, a Kenyan scientist,...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF