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Dig into Montana Before History: 11K Years of Hunter-Gatherers in the Rockies and Plains by D. H. MacDonald, Ph.D. See our online store book collection.

Middle Ages

Use these links to learn about scientists from the middle ages:

Abu Ja'far al-Khwarizmi
'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi
Leonardo Fibonacci
Jabir Ibn Haiyan

Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!

Our online store includes fun classroom activities for you and your students. Issues of NESTA's quarterly journal, The Earth Scientist are also full of classroom activities on different topics in Earth and space science!

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A Trip to the Observatory

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to take a trip to an observatory to use the telescope? In February 2006, astronomer Travis Metcalfe was granted 7 nights of observing time on one of the telescopes...more

A Trip to the Observatory - Transcript

I'm Travis Metcalfe, an astronomer at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. I made this short video for anyone who's ever wondered what it's like to take a trip to the observatory...more

Correlations in Science

When scientists do an experiment, they looking to see if two variables are related. A variable is something that changes. Sometimes variables are related (or correlated) in a positive way. That is, as...more


Hipparchus was a Greek astronomer who lived between 190-120 B.C. He is considered the father of trigonometry, a branch of mathematics which studies the angles of sides of triangles. Hipparchus also developed...more

James Adamson

James Adamson is an American astronaut who was born in New York in 1946. From 1965-1980, he served with the Army and the Navy. Adamson became an astronaut in 1984. He has flown on two space missions....more

Tom Akers

Tom Akers is an American astronaut who was born on May 20, 1951 in Missouri. Before he was an astronaut, Akers was a park ranger, teacher, and Air Force pilot. He has flown 25 different kinds of airplanes....more

Joseph Allen

Joseph Allen is an American astronaut who was born on June 27, 1937 in Indiana. Before he became an astronaut, Allen was a physicist who taught at the University of Washington. Allen became an astronaut...more

Jim Bagian

Jim Bagian is an American astronaut who was born on February 22, 1952 in Pennsylvania. Before he became an astronaut, Bagian was an engineer and a medical doctor. Bagian became an astronaut in 1980. He...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF