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Picture of Louis Pasteur
The Bettmann Archive. From painting by Edelfeld.

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who lived between 1822-1895. He described the scientific basis for fermentation, the process used to make beer and wine, showing that it is carried out by microorganisms, called germs. Pasteur learned that these germs are also responsible for spreading contagious diseases. He thus solved the mystery behind rabies and anthrax, and created vaccines for these and other deadly illnesses, saving many lives.

Pasteur also dispelled the myth of spontaneous generation, proving that all life must come from pre-existing life.


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Science, Evolution, and Creationism

How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable....more

Life on Earth

The Earth is very unique to our universe because it is the only planet known to have life . Our planet is the right distance from the sun so that it is possible for animals and plants to live. The first...more

Scientists Who Studied Life

Carl Sagan Stephen J. Gould Marie Curie Charles Darwin Louis Pasteur Leonardo Da Vinci ...more

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was an English Naturalist who lived between 1809-1882. In 1859, with the publication of The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, he challenged existing views on the appearance...more

Christian Doppler

Christian Doppler was an Austrian mathematician who lived between 1803-1853. He is known for the principle he first proposed in Concerning the coloured light of double stars in 1842. This principle is...more

Ben Franklin

Ben Franklin was an American scientist and statesman who lived between 1706-1790. At a time when little was known about electricity, he carried out many experiments to learn of its dangers and possible...more

Edmond Halley

Edmond Halley was an English astronomer who lived between 1656-1742. Using historical records, his own observations, and Newton's universal law of gravitation, he reasoned that the comets which had appeared...more

William Herschel

William Herschel was born in Germany and lived in England while he worked as an astronomer. He lived between 1738-1822. He built reflecting telescopes of high magnification, that let him observe the universe...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA