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Our Glaciers: Then and Now activity kit helps you see the changes taking place in glaciers around the world. See all our activity kits and classroom activities.

Maria Winkelmann Kirch

Maria Winkelmann Kirch was a German astronomer who lived between 1670-1720. She discovered the comet of 1702. She also published a paper in 1712 on the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.

Maria worked with her husband, Gottfried Kirch in making calendars and ephemerides (tables showing positions of the planets, Sun, and Moon).


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Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA