Shop Windows to the Universe

The Winter 2010 issue of The Earth Scientist includes a variety of educational resources, ranging from astronomy to glaciers. Check out the other publications and classroom materials in our online store.
This is an image of the volcano Loki.
Click on image for full size

Volcanism of Io

Io has active volcanism. It is the only body in the solar system other than the Earth to have active volcanoes. As shown in this picture, the surface is formed almost entirely of volcanic flows or pools of volcanic material.

Io provides another example of a prominent kind of volcanism found on Earth, namely the formation of geysers. The two kinds of volcanism exhibited by Io are:

  • volcanoes, which form from silicate magmas similar to those of Earth
  • geysers, spouting liquid SO2.

Hotspots of Io reveal where the volcanoes are. The most well known and active volcanic features of Io are:

Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!

Our online store includes books on science education, classroom activities in The Earth Scientist, mineral and fossil specimens, and educational games!

Windows to the Universe Community



You might also be interested in:

Science, Evolution, and Creationism

How did life evolve on Earth? The answer to this question can help us understand our past and prepare for our future. Although evolution provides credible and reliable answers, polls show that many people turn away from science, seeking other explanations with which they are more comfortable....more


Lava is the word for magma (molten rock) which is on the surface of the Earth. After being released from the magma chamber and cooling, lava hardens into rock. The term lava can describe active flows,...more

Geysers of Io

When Voyager flew by Io the surprise discovery was the geyser, Prometheus, in full eruption. Geysers such as Prometheus spout pools of liquid around the vent, rather than a channel of lava. Well known...more

Hotspots of Io

Hotspots help scientists know where the volcanoes & geysers of Io are actually located. This picture shows a map of the hotspots of Io at the top, and the same image of Io taken with a camera, at the bottom....more


This is an image of the geyser, Prometheus. The black marking in the center of the image is the mouth of the geyser. This opening is encircled by a pool of material. ...more


In the foreground of this image is shown the geyser, Pelee. ...more

Do Other Planets have a surface in Motion?

Let's look at the evidence: Mercury Venus The Moon Mars Io Europa Ganymede Callisto Triton Miranda What about Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Titan, or Pluto? These planets or moons either have no surface,...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA