Shop Windows to the Universe

Science, Evolution, and Creationism, by the National Academies, focuses on teaching evolution in today's classrooms. Check out the other publications in our online store.
The Gokstad ship at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo, Norway. The Gokstad ship is a late 9th century Viking ship found beneath a burial mound at Gokstad farm in Norway. It was excavated in 1880 by Nicolay Nicolaysen.
Click on image for full size
Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 License.

The Viking Age

The Viking Age was a time period in Scandinavia between 793 AD and 1066 AD. These dates are when Norwegian Vikings landed and raided parts of England (793) and when the English successfully fought off the Norwegian King Harald III’s invasion attempt (1066 AD). During these 250+ years, the Vikings explored and colonized much of Europe, and parts of Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and even North America.

Before the Viking Age, Scandinavia was settled by Germanic tribes. Most of the Viking people lived in communities near or on the coast. Although it is not clear what made these people begin exploring their world, some archaeologists think it may be related to climate change.

Several different causes have been suggested for the end of the Viking Age. Sociologists note that many royal houses in Europe and the rise of Christianity made the overall area more stable. Also, the end of the Viking Age was when the beginning of the ‘Little Ice Age’ was. The Little Ice Age was a period of global cooling that began around 1250 and is known to have increased North Atlantic pack ice. This would have made it harder for the Vikings to cross the ocean waters, so travel would have lessened.

Last modified March 5, 2008 by Jennifer Bergman.

Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!

The Fall 2009 issue of The Earth Scientist, which includes articles on student research into building design for earthquakes and a classroom lab on the composition of the Earth’s ancient atmosphere, is available in our online store.

Windows to the Universe Community

News

Opportunities

You might also be interested in:

Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

The Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age was a time of cooler climate in most parts of the world. Although there is some disagreement about exactly when the Little Ice Age started, records suggest that temperatures began cooling...more

The Medieval Warm Period

The Medieval Warm Period was a time of warm climate in Europe. The warmest part of the Medieval Warm Period was from about 950 until 1100 A.D. The warm climate overlaps with a time of high solar activity...more

Exploration of the Poles of the Earth

Polar exploration includes the physical exploration of the Arctic and the Antarctica. The Arctic is the area around the Earth's north pole and includes parts of Canada, Greenland, Russia, the United States...more

The Antarctic Region

What Will You Find There? South of the Antarctic Circle (at 66.5°S latitude) you will find the continent of Antarctica surrounded by the Southern Ocean, the geographic South Pole and the magnetic South...more

Antarctica

Antarctica is unique. It is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. The land is barren and mostly covered with a thick sheet of ice. Antarctica is almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle...more

The Arctic: Earth's North Polar Region

North of the Arctic Circle (at 66.5°N latitude) you will find the Arctic Ocean surrounded by the continents of Europe, Asia, and North America. You will find the geographic North Pole and the magnetic...more

Polar Bears on Thin Ice

“Polar bears are one of nature’s ultimate survivors, able to live and thrive in one of the world’s harshest environments, but we are concerned the polar bears’ habitat may literally be melting” said US...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA