International Polar Year - and IPY's of the PastThe IPY or International Polar Year of 2007-2008 is being met with much excitement from the polar science community.
What is an IPY and were there IPY's in the past?
*** First IPY ***
The First IPY took place in 1882-83. An Austrian scientist and a navy officer Karl Weyprecht was the leader behind this event. After spending years in the Arctic, he realized that it would be better if many countries worked together to collect data. He worked on this idea and the international polar year was born. In 1882, 12 countries set up 15 stations (13 in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere off the coast of South America) and collected data year around.
*** Second IPY ***
The science community came back to this idea fifty years later, announcing 1932-33 as the Second International Polar Year. By that time, technology had improved and better ground-based weather and physical measurements were made. Atmospheric measurements were taken too.
40 coutries participated in the second IPY and forty permanent stations were established in the Arctic. Many of these stations are still active now. The second Byrd expedition to the Antarctic continent also happened during the second IPY. This expedition made a winter-long weather station on the Ross Ice Shelf, the first research station inland from Antarctica’s coast.
*** IGY ***
The International Geophysical Year (IGY) started in 1957 and was more broad in aiming to study many of the Earth sciences. Although the world was in the middle of the Cold War, the IGY was by far the most successful example of international scientific collaboration. 67 nations participated in the event. So many important scientific advancements were made during this IGY:
The theory of continental drift was confirmed after 50 years of dispute. The first satellites into space enabled the discovery of the radiation belts around Earth. For the first time scientists crossed the Antarctica continent, measuring the total size of its ice mass. Permanent stations were established in Antarctica. The advances in science were overwhelming and the IGY activities went beyond the “year” that had been planned.
*** IPY of 2007-08 ***
Over 30 nations are involved in this event. The main goals of these countries are to advance current understandings and investigate the unknowns in polar science. Education of the next generation of scientists and engaging the awareness, interest and understanding of polar research among the general public, school children and policy-makers world-wide is also a goal.
This text was adapted from text written by Maria Tsukernik who is a graduate student at University of Colorado-Boulder.