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Hands On Mineral Identification helps you to identify over 14,500 minerals! By M. Darby Dyar, Ph.D. See our DVD collection.
This is an image of the Earth, 240 M ago.
Image courtesy of the Wikipedia Commons

The Triassic

This period of time in Earth's history is a period when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. This period lasted 37 Million years. During this time, the continents we know today were combined into a giant continent named PANGAEA.

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The History of Martian Volcanism

During its earliest history, Mars was bombarded with *planetismals*. The impacts of these asteroid-like boulders caused the surface regions of Mars to become warm enough for continents to drift across...more

The Archean

The Archean is the name of the age which began with the forming Earth. The duration of the Archean, 2.8 billion years, is more than half the expected age of the Earth. We don't know much about this period,...more

Salts included in the Earth's early ocean

We all know that salt is a big part of the ocean water today. Two things help scientists figure out what chemicals may have been part of the Earth's early oceans. Igneous rocks are made of iron, aluminum,...more

The Triassic

This period of time in Earth's history is a period when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. This period lasted 37 Million years. During this time, the continents we know today were combined into a giant continent...more

Earths Primordial Atmosphere

There are quite a few theories about the origin of the heavy molecules which comprise the Earths atmosphere today. Since all the planets including Earth were still forming during the Suns T-Tauri phase,...more

Earth's Early Ocean

An ocean began to form on Earth as soon as the temperature fell from very hot, to about room temperature, a temperature where liquid water is stable. According to the Goldilocks theory, Earth is at just...more

Iron Ore Deposits

Eventually, as with the development of photosynthesis along sulfur and methane pathways, where sulfur and methane products are produced, photosynthesis along the oxygen pathway, where oxygen is produced,...more

K-T Extinction (Why Did the Dinosaurs Go Extinct?)

Why did the dinosaurs go extinct? No one knows for sure, and scientists have come up with a number of theories to explain why the dinosaurs suddenly died out about 65 million years ago. The most prominent...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA