Shop Windows to the Universe

Warnings: The True Story of How Science Tamed the Weather by Mike Smith tells the story of our storm warning system. See our online store book collection.

Climate Influences the Rock Cycle

Climate has three basic influences on the rock cycle: weathering & erosion, rate of limestone production, and rate of fossil production.

Credits: Courtesy of Jerome Wyckoff

Weathering and erosion: Weathering is the breakup of rock due to physical and chemical processes, while erosion is the transport of weathered rock particles by wind and water. The primary way that climate affects weathering and erosion through its connection to the water cycle.

When water freezes in cracks and crevices in rock and expands, the rocks are physically broken apart. The amount of rainfall will affect weathering as will the types of plants in the area (which are greatly affected by the amount of rainfall), whose roots break rocks apart and may chemically dissolve some rocks.

For a more detailed explanation, take a look at these pages:

Step 1: Breaking Rocks Apart

Step 2: Sediments on the Move!

Step 3: Sediments Settling Down

Step 4: Turning a Pile of Sediment into Solid Rock

Rate of limestone production: Limestone rocks are made most prolifically in the warm shallow waters of tropics. Thus, limestone production depends on the extent of tropical regions. The amount of shallow sea area, where limestone forms quickly, depends on sea level. When the edges of the continents are flooded by high sea level because glaciers have melted during warm global climate, more carbonate rocks are produced.

In warm, tropical oceans, like that shown in (A), large numbers of corals and other marine animals and plants make skeletons out of calcite and other carbonate minerals. These skeletons and carbonate mud make a rock called limestone like the one shown in (B) from San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. This limestone was a coral reef living under a shallow sea about 120,000 years ago. Credits: (A) Abi Howe, American Geological Institute, courtesy of Earth Science World Imagebank and (B) courtesy of Lisa Gardiner

The leg and shoulder bones of a large Sauropod dinosaur preserved at Dinosaur National Monument (Colorado, USA) Credits: Courtesy of Dinosaur National Monument

Rate of fossil production: Environments and ecosystems depend on climate so different types of sedimentary rocks and fossils are preserved when climates change. Additionally, fossilization processes depend on climate. The chance of animal or plant remains becoming fossilized at all is very minimal, and it is much more likely that the remains will decompose.

Body fossils are remains of actual organisms. Most living things never become fossils. It takes special conditions for a fossil to form. Hard parts made of mineral such as shells and bones are much more likely to become body fossils than soft tissues, such as skin, organs, and eyes, which usually decay. This means that animals like jellyfish, which have no bones made of hard mineral, are rarely preserved.

But since the rate of decomposition is different in different climates, remains are more likely to become fossils in some environment than others. In warm, humid environments, less soft tissues are fossilized because the rate of decomposition is high. However, in arctic environments, much like in your freezer, the rate of decomposition is lower and soft tissues are more likely to fossilize.

Last modified June 28, 2007 by Dennis Ward.

Shop Windows to the Universe Science Store!

Cool It! is the new card game from the Union of Concerned Scientists that teaches kids about the choices we have when it comes to climate change—and how policy and technology decisions made today will matter. Cool It! is available in our online store.

Windows to the Universe Community



You might also be interested in:

Cool It! Game

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

Step 2: Erosion and Transport (Sediments on the Move!)

Sneeze into a pile of dust and the particles fly everywhere. Sneeze into a pile of rocks and they stay put. That’s because they have more mass. You need more force than a sneeze to move those rocks. Wind...more

Step 3: Deposition (Sediments Settling Down!)

When water or wind loses energy and slows down, sediment can no longer be carried in it. The particles of sediment fall through the water or air and form a blanket of sediment on the bottom of a river,...more

What Is a Fossil?

Fossils are evidence of ancient life preserved within sedimentary rocks. They are clues to what living things, ecosystems, and environments were like since life has existed on this planet. The oldest...more

World Leaders Developing a New Plan to Help Earth’s Changing Climate

Leaders from 192 nations of the world are trying to make an agreement about how to limit emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases, mitigate climate change, and adapt to changing environmental conditions....more

What is Climate?

Climate in your place on the globe is called regional climate. It is the average weather pattern in a place over more than thirty years, including the variations in seasons. To describe the regional climate...more

Earth's Greenhouse Gases

Less than 1% of the gases in Earth's atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. Even though they are not very abundant, these greenhouse gases have a major effect. Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O),...more

Space Missions to study Earth's Atmosphere & Climate

Television weather forecasts in the space age routinely feature satellite views of cloud cover. Cameras and other instruments on spacecraft provide many types of valuable data about Earth's atmosphere...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF