The relative location of the Moon and Sun during spring and neap tides. In this diagram, an exaggerated blue ocean around the Earth shows high tides as a thick bulge.
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Windows to the Universe / Lisa Gardiner
Tides of the Ocean
If you sat on an ocean beach for many hours, you might notice that water covers more of the beach at some times than at other times. This happens because the ocean surface rises and falls – a phenomenon called tides. The highest point of the rise is called high tide. The lowest point is called low tide. Most places have two high tides and two low tides each day.
Tides happen because of the pull of the Moon and Sun on ocean water. The Moon has a much greater impact on tides than the Sun because it is much closer. The Moon's gravity pulls water that is closest to it making a high tide on the side of the Earth closest to the Moon and there is a high tide on the opposite side of the Earth too. Low tides happen in places between the high tides.
The difference between high and low tide can be as little as a few centimeters to as much as several meters depending on the shape of the ocean floor. In Canada's Bay of Fundy the tidal range is very large – 16 meters.
At times when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are in line with each other, the tidal range is larger because both the Sun’s and Moon’s gravitational pull create the tide. This is called a spring tide. At times when the Moon and Sun are not in line with Earth, when they are at right angles when viewed from Earth, the tidal range is smaller. This is called a neap tide.
Tides are a powerful force. Scientists and engineers are looking for ways to use some of that power to make electricity using turbines. Scientists are studying tidal ecosystems to understand how they might be affected by turbines to make sure that wildlife is not harmed.
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The Spring 2010 issue of The Earth Scientist
, focuses on the ocean, including articles on polar research, coral reefs, ocean acidification, and climate. Includes a gorgeous full color poster!
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