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Containers such as these usually contain industrial waste.
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Groundwater contaminants

Septic tanks, city dumps, and watery waste from human activity may contaminate groundwater. Among many things which contribute to contamination are chemicals found in laundry detergents.

Lots of salt on icy roads in the winter may lead to sodium chloride (NaCl) contamination.

Another very common contaminant to ground water is some fertilizers used in farming which are healthy for plants, but toxic to humans.


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We have beautiful specimens of banded iron formation in our online store from Nature's Own, along with many other mineral specimens.

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Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

Aquifer

An aquifer is the name for a layer of rock which is capable of holding a large amount of water. Some layers are better at holding water than others, for example a layer of sandstone can hold a good deal...more

Carbonates

Limestone is an example of a carbonate. Other examples of carbonates include calcite, dolomite, and marble. Limestone dissolves easily in rainwater, especially rainwater which is loaded with carbonic acid....more

Deep Water and the CO2 cycle

The deep ocean waters are under pressure and are much colder than layers of the ocean which are closer to the surface. Dissolved carbon dioxide seems to be absent from the deep ocean water and as a result...more

Evaporation

Have you ever left a glass of water out for a long time? Did you notice that the water disappears after a few days? That's because it evaporated! Evaporation is when water passes from a liquid to a gas....more

Surface Ocean Currents

The water at the ocean surface is moved by powerful wind. The wind is able to move the top 400 meters of the ocean. This moving water is called surface ocean currents. Surface ocean currents form large...more

Rivers

Rivers are very important to Earth because they are major forces that shape the landscape. Also, they provide transportation and water for drinking, washing and farming. Rivers can flow on land or underground...more

Salinity

Almost 3/4 of the Earth is covered with water. Almost all of that water is in the oceans. Have you ever been swimming in the ocean? If you have and you accidentally got water in your mouth, you know the...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF