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The Spring 2011 issue of The Earth Scientist is focused on modernizing seismology education. Thanks to IRIS, you can download this issue for free as a pdf. Print copies are available in our online store.

Exploratour - Does Europa have an Ocean?

This tour is not ready yet, but you are welcome to click through and look at the pictures!

When you think of an ocean, this is what usually comes to mind! When we discuss an ocean on Europa, this is not what we have in mind however. Any ocean on Europa would have to be under the surface. As we've said in the discussion of life on Earth, liquid water seems to be important to life. According to the Miller Urey hypothesis, the first life may have been born in the Earth's oceans. Geologists studying Europa will be looking for evidence of a sub-surface ocean, however. It is very possible that life might exist in water buried under a translucent icy crust.

To continue with this tour, just click on the forward indicator in the "football" at the top right portion of this page. To read more about the importance of an ocean to the beginnings of life on Earth, or the Miller Urey hypothesis, you may leave this tour and take the tour of Life on Earth, or read the discussion of Miller Urey, linked at the bottom of this page.

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ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

Look at the bed below the body of the sleeping man. You can still see where he was lying down. The heat from his body warmed up the bed sheets which are now radiating infrared light toward your eyes....more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

All warm objects (not just people) release infrared light. Warmer objects give off more infrared light. Very hot objects radiate other types of light as well. Click on the picture to see the infrared...more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

What kinds of light can people see? Our eyes can see visible light. When it passes into our eyes different types of visible light create different sensations that we see as colors. ...more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

Imagine you found a pair of special glasses that not only gave you telescopic vision but gave you the ability to see all forms of radiant energy. The universe in visible light contains all the familiar...more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

This is a volcano on the island of Miyake in Japan. It has erupted, sending hot lava and ash into the air, a total of ten times. The time after one eruption until the next occurred was about twenty years...more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

This is a picture of a galaxy in visible light. A galaxy is a large number of stars, some like our sun, some bigger, some smaller and all moving together through space. This galaxy is called Centaurus...more

ExploraTour - Looking at the World in a Different Light

This is a plant in Gary, Indiana where power is made. We use power to run things like television sets, radios, lights, and microwave ovens. The picture looks very strange because it was taken in infrared....more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation and NASA, our Founding Partners (the American Geophysical Union and American Geosciences Institute) as well as through Institutional, Contributing, and Affiliate Partners, individual memberships and generous donors. Thank you for your support! NASA AGU AGI NSF